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literature_review [2016/11/16 14:21]
j.weber [3. Recommendations]
literature_review [2017/02/02 16:45]
admin
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 =====I. Introduction===== =====I. Introduction=====
  
-Jessica :?://Some sections have names, others don't. Could you add the names of the students who wrote the different sections wherever they are missing?// 
- 
-Jessica 
  
 Wind farms play a more and more important role in the expansion of renewable energy resources. However, they are not only discussed as a highly efficient renewable energy resource with regard to the electricity generation, but also in terms of the expenses related to their development (Deutsche WindGuard 2014, Jacobsen 2009). Especially in Germany, the development of wind facilities is increasingly becoming the focal point in the political discourse at national level: to exit from new nuclear power generation – keyword “Energiewende” (engl., “energy transition”) – and to fulfill he government’s CO2 reduction objectives as agreed upon in international treaties (e.g. EU 2030 Climate and Energy framework, Paris agreement, Kyoto protocol). On the federal states’ level, different views about the general role of the wind energy in the energy transition give rise to inner German political conflicts; however, social criticism is attributable not only to structural differences for wind facilities between the northern and southern lands of Germany (cf. Tagesschau 2016). Wind farms play a more and more important role in the expansion of renewable energy resources. However, they are not only discussed as a highly efficient renewable energy resource with regard to the electricity generation, but also in terms of the expenses related to their development (Deutsche WindGuard 2014, Jacobsen 2009). Especially in Germany, the development of wind facilities is increasingly becoming the focal point in the political discourse at national level: to exit from new nuclear power generation – keyword “Energiewende” (engl., “energy transition”) – and to fulfill he government’s CO2 reduction objectives as agreed upon in international treaties (e.g. EU 2030 Climate and Energy framework, Paris agreement, Kyoto protocol). On the federal states’ level, different views about the general role of the wind energy in the energy transition give rise to inner German political conflicts; however, social criticism is attributable not only to structural differences for wind facilities between the northern and southern lands of Germany (cf. Tagesschau 2016).
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 ===== II. Methodology ===== ===== II. Methodology =====
  
-Felipe, Jill, Jessica, Marike +This synopsis was accomplished by a literature review, which covers 55 international papers from scientists with an emphasis on European contributions. The analysed articles all refer to the issue of the social acceptance of wind energy and were published between 2007 and 2015. However, the papers relate to different priorities: Some of them specifically refer to different steps of the planning process, others rather analyse the general settings of wind farms and the caused impacts.
- +
-This synopsis was accomplished by a literature review, which covers 55 international papers from scientists with an emphasis on European contributions. The analysed articles all refer to the issue of the social acceptance of wind energy and were published between 2007 and 2015. However, the papers relate to different priorities, __and to varying degrees__:?:. Some of them specifically refer to different steps of the planning process, others rather analyse the general settings of wind farms and the caused impacts.+
  
 As a first step of the synopsis, the articles were read by students, guided by three research questions:  As a first step of the synopsis, the articles were read by students, guided by three research questions: 
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 ==== 1. Methods====  ==== 1. Methods==== 
  
-FelipeJill+Within the reviewed papers several methods used to assess the social acceptance or resistance of wind energy were identified (see <imgref image1>). Generally distinguished methods can be grouped into two sub-categories: “Methods of data acquisition” and “Methods of analysis”. Furthermorea categorisation into “technical methods” that relate to gather information and “analysis methods” that are to evaluate the information is possible. Since research papers can apply different or a combination of methods, findings show that there is not necessarily a “clear” methodology to assess the social acceptance of wind energy. Only one of the articles has not used or mentioned any method (Nagel et al. 2014) (see <imgref image1>). 
  
-Within the reviewed papers several methods used to assess the social acceptance or resistance of wind energy were identified (see <imgref image1>). Generally distinguished methods can be grouped into two sub-categories: “Methods of data acquisition” and “Methods of analysis”. Furthermore, a categorisation into “technical methods” that relate to gather information and “analysis methods” that are to evaluate the information is possible. Since research papers can apply different or a combination of methods, findings show that there is not necessarily a “clear” methodology to assess the social acceptance of wind energyOnly one of the articles has not used or mentioned any method (Nagel et al2014) (see <imgref image1>). 8-O //This picture is a bit hard to read. It would be nicer to have this information in an actual table.//+<imgcaption image1|Methods applied in the literature (own figure). Please click on the figure to see the full resolution.>{{:methods_synopsis.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>
  
-<imgcaption image1|Methods applied in the literature>{{:methods_new_jw.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>+Concerning the first category "Methods of data acquisition", the most applied method refers to the literature review. It is widely uniform, since most of the authors review previous writings related to the respective topic of the study to draw conclusions by verifying or opposing their assumption (e.g. Wüstenhagen 2007, Gross 2007, Jones & Eiser 2009, 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Cowell 2010). Notwithstanding, Aitken (2010) indicates limits and restrictions to literature reviews since they are based on certain key assumption, for instance that the majority of the public is in favour of wind power or that opponents are ignorant or misinformed. Predefined assumptions have implications for how topics are discussed in policy and practice fields, therefore must consider that objectors to wind energy „are not always wrong“ (Aitken 20101834).
  
-Concerning the first category "Methods of data acquisition", the most applied method refers to the literature review. It is widely uniform, since most of the authors review previous writings related to the respective topic of the study to draw conclusions by verifying or opposing their assumption (e.g. Wüstenhagen 2007, Gross 2007, Jones & Eiser 2009, 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Cowell 2010). Notwithstanding, Aitken (2010) indicates limits and restrictions to literature reviews since they are based on certain key assumption, for instance that the majority of the public is in favour of wind power or that opponents are ignorant or misinformed.:?: //How do these key assumptions influence the result?// 
  
-The second most frequent applied method is to acquire information through the distribution and collection of questionnaires. These can entail closed and/or open questions and are directed to a sample of the (general) population in order to assess their attitudes and perceptions towards various aspects of wind energy (e.g. Swofford & Slattery 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren & McFadyen 2010). __Jones & Eiser (2009 and 2010) even used the same questionnaire for two studies from 2009 and 2010, focusing on different sections for the respective aim of the study.__:?: //Why is that important to know?//+The second most frequent applied method is to acquire information through the distribution and collection of questionnaires. These can entail closed and/or open questions and are directed to a sample of the (general) population in order to assess their attitudes and perceptions towards various aspects of wind energy (e.g. Swofford & Slattery 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren & McFadyen 2010). __Jones & Eiser (2009 and 2010) exemplarily used the same questionnaire for two studies from 2009 and 2010, focusing on different sections for the respective aim of the study. This shows that even the research-set up may have a decisive influence on the outcome of the social acceptance at hand.
  
 Furthermore, another common method to gather information is the analysis of case studies (e.g. Sovacool & Ratan 2012, Loring 2007, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008). This analysis can range from only investigating one case e.g. a pilot case study (Gross 2007), up to nearly twenty case studies (Wüstenhagen 2007).  Furthermore, another common method to gather information is the analysis of case studies (e.g. Sovacool & Ratan 2012, Loring 2007, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008). This analysis can range from only investigating one case e.g. a pilot case study (Gross 2007), up to nearly twenty case studies (Wüstenhagen 2007). 
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 The second most frequent way to deal with the information is to create an acceptance matrix, which displays the expected behaviour of a person, e.g. adoption, support, rejection, resistance; conditional on the personal valuation of the issue and the nature of the reaction (Gross 2007). Other, more than once applied methods are to elaborate a constellation analysis based on actor network theory or to analyse the “three dimensions” consisting of the socio-political, community and market acceptance.  The second most frequent way to deal with the information is to create an acceptance matrix, which displays the expected behaviour of a person, e.g. adoption, support, rejection, resistance; conditional on the personal valuation of the issue and the nature of the reaction (Gross 2007). Other, more than once applied methods are to elaborate a constellation analysis based on actor network theory or to analyse the “three dimensions” consisting of the socio-political, community and market acceptance. 
- 
  
 ==== 2. Factors==== ==== 2. Factors====
-Marike 
- 
  
 The review of the literature identified 41 different factors that can have an influence on the attitude towards wind energy – both, in a positive or a negative way. The factors were bundled into eight groups: Socio-political framework, socio-economic factors, procedural factors, set of values, other personal characteristics, perception of impacts, technological/ physical features and environmental impacts. Generally, these groups are similar to those of the VESPA categorization by Petrova (2016), which differentiates into: 1) visual/landscape, 2) environmental, 3) socioeconomic, and 4) procedural aspects. The review of the literature identified 41 different factors that can have an influence on the attitude towards wind energy – both, in a positive or a negative way. The factors were bundled into eight groups: Socio-political framework, socio-economic factors, procedural factors, set of values, other personal characteristics, perception of impacts, technological/ physical features and environmental impacts. Generally, these groups are similar to those of the VESPA categorization by Petrova (2016), which differentiates into: 1) visual/landscape, 2) environmental, 3) socioeconomic, and 4) procedural aspects.
-The three additional categories ‘set of values’, ‘other personal characteristics’, ‘perception of impacts’ address more explicitly the more subjective determinants of attitudes that are mentioned in literature (see <imgref image2>). FIXME //Recommendation to rephrase 'Scale' of participation into 'Scope' of part.; scale might primarily be understood as a spatial or hierarchal dimension when it comes to tiering etc.// +The three additional categories ‘set of values’, ‘other personal characteristics’, ‘perception of impacts’ address more explicitly the more subjective determinants of attitudes that are mentioned in literature (see <imgref image2>). 
- +
-<imgcaption image2|Factors mentioned in the literature>{{:factors_neu_jw.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>+
  
 +<imgcaption image2|Factors mentioned in the literature (own figure). Please click on the figure to see the full resolution. >{{:factors_synopsis.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>
  
  
 ===i) NIMBY and beyond=== ===i) NIMBY and beyond===
-In the context of opposition against wind energy development, the term NIMBY (“Not in my backyard”) still is a very frequently mobilized term that aims to describe people that are generally for wind energy but do not approve of its implementation close to their living area. FIXME //Needs to be defined in the Table as well.// However, there is growing criticism towards the usage of this concept because it is seen as a simplistic representation of the public attitudes (Friedl & Reichl 2016), that characterizes opponents as merely selfish persons (e.g. Wolsink 2000; Devine-Wright 2009). Moreover, the concept does not explain why people perceive certain impacts as they do (Bidwell 2013). When using the concept of NIMBY it is thus also impossible of reflecting that the parallel existence of the general acceptance of renewable energies and the opposition to new projects in the vicinity might after all not be a paradox or deviant behaviour, but rather a psychologically ordinary reaction to social change (Batel & Devine-Wright 2015). Finally, it stands in the way to the important analysis of the reasons for which people support and welcome wind energy (e.g. Bidwell 2013; Petrova 2016). NIMBY as such is thus not used so often as major argument in current literature on social acceptance of wind energy – Yuan et al. (2015) might be an exception to that – , but actually frequently serves as justification for a more detailed analysis of the underlying factors and drivers of public opinion. :-D+In the context of opposition against wind energy development, the term NIMBY (“Not in my backyard”) still is a very frequently mobilized term that aims to describe people that are generally for wind energy but do not approve of its implementation close to their living area. However, there is growing criticism towards the usage of this concept because it is seen as a simplistic representation of the public attitudes (Friedl & Reichl 2016), that characterizes opponents as merely selfish persons (e.g. Wolsink 2000; Devine-Wright 2009). Moreover, the concept does not explain why people perceive certain impacts as they do (Bidwell 2013). When using the concept of NIMBY it is thus also impossible of reflecting that the parallel existence of the general acceptance of renewable energies and the opposition to new projects in the vicinity might after all not be a paradox or deviant behaviour, but rather a psychologically ordinary reaction to social change (Batel & Devine-Wright 2015). Finally, it stands in the way to the important analysis of the reasons for which people support and welcome wind energy (e.g. Bidwell 2013; Petrova 2016). NIMBY as such is thus not used so often as major argument in current literature on social acceptance of wind energy – Yuan et al. (2015) might be an exception to that – , but actually frequently serves as justification for a more detailed analysis of the underlying factors and drivers of public opinion.
  
 ===ii) Physical features=== ===ii) Physical features===
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 Another factor influencing people’s judgements is their education or knowledge base. On the one hand, it could be shown that people with higher education are more open towards the development of new wind parks (Caporale & Lucia 2015), although they would prefer a cautious rather than fast approach (Bidwell 2013). On the other hand, it was noted that the better informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptance they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016). It is seen as essential to inform the public about the usefulness and need of the new project, for example with respect to the development of the green energy market or electricity prices (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Friedl & Reichl 2016). A qualified public understanding of wind energy and its positive as well as negative impacts does not only increase the acceptance but also enables better decisions and evaluation processes (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016). For this, the quality as well as the timing of the information counts: it is seen as decisive what and from where the public first receives information (Petrova 2016) as later on it will be harder to correct not just misinformation or biased information but also the feeling of not having been informed adequately and in time by the responsibles (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Petrova 2016). The latter is an important factor, because if the public perceives to be pushed into something or to receive untrustworthy information, or it simply cannot understand over complex information (Schweizer-Ries 2008) it can severely shape their attitude towards the project (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007) and worsen their perception of negative impacts, e.g. property value loss (Walker et al. 2014).  Another factor influencing people’s judgements is their education or knowledge base. On the one hand, it could be shown that people with higher education are more open towards the development of new wind parks (Caporale & Lucia 2015), although they would prefer a cautious rather than fast approach (Bidwell 2013). On the other hand, it was noted that the better informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptance they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016). It is seen as essential to inform the public about the usefulness and need of the new project, for example with respect to the development of the green energy market or electricity prices (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Friedl & Reichl 2016). A qualified public understanding of wind energy and its positive as well as negative impacts does not only increase the acceptance but also enables better decisions and evaluation processes (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016). For this, the quality as well as the timing of the information counts: it is seen as decisive what and from where the public first receives information (Petrova 2016) as later on it will be harder to correct not just misinformation or biased information but also the feeling of not having been informed adequately and in time by the responsibles (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Petrova 2016). The latter is an important factor, because if the public perceives to be pushed into something or to receive untrustworthy information, or it simply cannot understand over complex information (Schweizer-Ries 2008) it can severely shape their attitude towards the project (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007) and worsen their perception of negative impacts, e.g. property value loss (Walker et al. 2014). 
  
-An influential role in this context of information distribution is taken by the media. Oftentimes, citizens are not directly impacted by a wind development project, but hear about it in the media (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Depending on which impacts and benefits the medium reports, this can have a powerful impact on the formation of the public opinion (Zoellner et al. 2008).FIXME //Reference to your own media analysis.//+An influential role in this context of information distribution is taken by the media. Oftentimes, citizens are not directly impacted by a wind development project, but hear about it in the media (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Depending on which impacts and benefits the medium reports, this can have a powerful impact on the formation of the public opinion (Zoellner et al. 2008 and [[media_analysis|results of the project'media analysis]])
  
 ==Participation== ==Participation==
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 ==Framework== ==Framework==
  
-Another decisive factor in shaping people’s attitudes is the social and political context, as it is the starting point for the social valuation process of a new project (Schweizer-Ries 2008) and shapes the perceptions (Walker et al. 2014). This becomes visible for example in the case of Firestone et al.’s research (2012), where the community origin mattered significantly more for the general attitude than visibility or place attachment. The author verified this finding that socially constructed aspects find more resonance than physical ones in his more recent work (Firestone, Bates & Knapp 2015). Guo et al. (2015) looker closer at the influence of general public attitudes about environmental issues and about wind power on the development of new wind energy projects. While __he__ FIXME //should be they since it is et al.// found the latter not to have explanatory power, he detected that the general view on the environment has influence on local, communal and regional level preferences concerning further wind energy development (Guo et al. 2015). Johansson and Laike (2007) however also found the general attitude towards wind energy to be decisive. +Another decisive factor in shaping people’s attitudes is the social and political context, as it is the starting point for the social valuation process of a new project (Schweizer-Ries 2008) and shapes the perceptions (Walker et al. 2014). This becomes visible for example in the case of Firestone et al.’s research (2012), where the community origin mattered significantly more for the general attitude than visibility or place attachment. The author verified this finding that socially constructed aspects find more resonance than physical ones in his more recent work (Firestone, Bates & Knapp 2015). Guo et al. (2015) looker closer at the influence of general public attitudes about environmental issues and about wind power on the development of new wind energy projects. While they found the latter not to have explanatory power, they detected that the general view on the environment has influence on local, communal and regional level preferences concerning further wind energy development (Guo et al. 2015). Johansson and Laike (2007) however also found the general attitude towards wind energy to be decisive. 
  
 Closely related to this is the factor of political or policy acceptance. Its influence on the project’s success is seen as essential by several authors (Wüstenhagen, Wolsink & Bürer 2007; Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Friedl & Reichl 2016). Some authors identified specifically energy security related policy and issues as influential for the project’s outcome and acceptance (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Firestone et al. 2012). Closely related to this is the factor of political or policy acceptance. Its influence on the project’s success is seen as essential by several authors (Wüstenhagen, Wolsink & Bürer 2007; Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Friedl & Reichl 2016). Some authors identified specifically energy security related policy and issues as influential for the project’s outcome and acceptance (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Firestone et al. 2012).
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-:-D Very nice.  
      
      
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- 
- 
 ==== 3. Recommendations==== ==== 3. Recommendations====
- 
-Jessica (edited by JW 16.11) (This is the best resolution for the tables (Fig. 3) so far, maybe I'll find another way to enhance the quality in the wiki, nevertheless by clicking on the picture the full resolution is opened is the web browser) 
  
 The last category groups the recommendations of improving the social acceptance of wind energy into the four subcategories: “education”, “economic approaches”, “procedural improvements” and “other” (see figure 3). During the literature review, these four aspects emerged as the key starting points in order to enhance a positive acceptance towards wind energy facilities. The subcategory “other” thereby comprises mainly compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats or supporting community projects. Hereinafter, these four subcategories are explained in further detail (Fig. 3).  The last category groups the recommendations of improving the social acceptance of wind energy into the four subcategories: “education”, “economic approaches”, “procedural improvements” and “other” (see figure 3). During the literature review, these four aspects emerged as the key starting points in order to enhance a positive acceptance towards wind energy facilities. The subcategory “other” thereby comprises mainly compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats or supporting community projects. Hereinafter, these four subcategories are explained in further detail (Fig. 3). 
  
-FIXME //Somehow table 2 has a better resolutionFor table 1 and 3 the resolutions should be improved.//+<imgcaption image3|Overall recommendations of the literature (own figure)Please click on the figure to see the full resolution>{{ :recommendations_synopsis.jpg?700 |Overall recommendations of the literature }}</imgcaption>
  
-<imgcaption image3|Overall recommendations of the literature>{{ :recommendations_neu_korrektur_68_mb.jpg?700 |Overall recommendations of the literature }}</imgcaption> 
  
  
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 All in all, the different recommendations show that several analysed methods in order to foster acceptance indeed have already been practiced in the field: some have proven effective, especially when it comes to local participation, inclusion of economic benefits and the „right way“ to spread information. Even if there are still some problems related to the application of general measures to distinct local wind energy projects, the literature review has shown that sometimes even minor measures and properties like engagement in open dialogues, sharing responsibilities and trusting one another help effectively to foster the social acceptance of wind energy. All in all, the different recommendations show that several analysed methods in order to foster acceptance indeed have already been practiced in the field: some have proven effective, especially when it comes to local participation, inclusion of economic benefits and the „right way“ to spread information. Even if there are still some problems related to the application of general measures to distinct local wind energy projects, the literature review has shown that sometimes even minor measures and properties like engagement in open dialogues, sharing responsibilities and trusting one another help effectively to foster the social acceptance of wind energy.
 ===== IV. Conclusion ===== ===== IV. Conclusion =====
- 
-Jessica (edited by JW 16.11) 
  
 Social-political movements often accompany promoting the development of wind energy in order to fulfil the energy policy driven goals of the energy transition and to contribute to defined climatic targets. The decentralisation of wind turbines also leads to the often-observed happening that proponents and opponents of wind energy draw on their diverging perceptions of wind energy plants.  Social-political movements often accompany promoting the development of wind energy in order to fulfil the energy policy driven goals of the energy transition and to contribute to defined climatic targets. The decentralisation of wind turbines also leads to the often-observed happening that proponents and opponents of wind energy draw on their diverging perceptions of wind energy plants. 
literature_review.txt · Last modified: 2017/02/02 16:45 by admin