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 =====I. Introduction===== =====I. Introduction=====
  
-Jessica :?://Some sections have names, others don't. Could you add the names wherever they are missing?// 
  
 Wind farms play a more and more important role in the expansion of renewable energy resources. However, they are not only discussed as a highly efficient renewable energy resource with regard to the electricity generation, but also in terms of the expenses related to their development (Deutsche WindGuard 2014, Jacobsen 2009). Especially in Germany, the development of wind facilities is increasingly becoming the focal point in the political discourse at national level: to exit from new nuclear power generation – keyword “Energiewende” (engl., “energy transition”) – and to fulfill he government’s CO2 reduction objectives as agreed upon in international treaties (e.g. EU 2030 Climate and Energy framework, Paris agreement, Kyoto protocol). On the federal states’ level, different views about the general role of the wind energy in the energy transition give rise to inner German political conflicts; however, social criticism is attributable not only to structural differences for wind facilities between the northern and southern lands of Germany (cf. Tagesschau 2016). Wind farms play a more and more important role in the expansion of renewable energy resources. However, they are not only discussed as a highly efficient renewable energy resource with regard to the electricity generation, but also in terms of the expenses related to their development (Deutsche WindGuard 2014, Jacobsen 2009). Especially in Germany, the development of wind facilities is increasingly becoming the focal point in the political discourse at national level: to exit from new nuclear power generation – keyword “Energiewende” (engl., “energy transition”) – and to fulfill he government’s CO2 reduction objectives as agreed upon in international treaties (e.g. EU 2030 Climate and Energy framework, Paris agreement, Kyoto protocol). On the federal states’ level, different views about the general role of the wind energy in the energy transition give rise to inner German political conflicts; however, social criticism is attributable not only to structural differences for wind facilities between the northern and southern lands of Germany (cf. Tagesschau 2016).
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 The synopsis at hand shall produce a qualitative overview of the current state of knowledge on social acceptance of wind energy, drawing from literature results of the past nine years.  The outcome aims to enable a better understanding of social acceptance of wind energy and thereby potentially be a starting point for practical planning strategies. The synopsis at hand shall produce a qualitative overview of the current state of knowledge on social acceptance of wind energy, drawing from literature results of the past nine years.  The outcome aims to enable a better understanding of social acceptance of wind energy and thereby potentially be a starting point for practical planning strategies.
  
-Felipe, Jill, Jessica, Marike 
  
 ===== II. Methodology ===== ===== II. Methodology =====
  
-This synopsis was accomplished by a literature review, which covers 55 international papers from scientists with an emphasis on European contributions. The analysed articles all refer to the issue of the social acceptance of wind energy and were published between 2007 and 2015. However, the papers relate to different priorities, __and to varying degrees__:?:. Some of them specifically refer to different steps of the planning process, others rather analyse the general settings of wind farms and the caused impacts.+This synopsis was accomplished by a literature review, which covers 55 international papers from scientists with an emphasis on European contributions. The analysed articles all refer to the issue of the social acceptance of wind energy and were published between 2007 and 2015. However, the papers relate to different priorities: Some of them specifically refer to different steps of the planning process, others rather analyse the general settings of wind farms and the caused impacts.
  
 As a first step of the synopsis, the articles were read by students, guided by three research questions:  As a first step of the synopsis, the articles were read by students, guided by three research questions: 
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 ==== 1. Methods====  ==== 1. Methods==== 
  
-FelipeJill+Within the reviewed papers several methods used to assess the social acceptance or resistance of wind energy were identified (see <imgref image1>). Generally distinguished methods can be grouped into two sub-categories: “Methods of data acquisition” and “Methods of analysis”. Furthermorea categorisation into “technical methods” that relate to gather information and “analysis methods” that are to evaluate the information is possible. Since research papers can apply different or a combination of methods, findings show that there is not necessarily a “clear” methodology to assess the social acceptance of wind energy. Only one of the articles has not used or mentioned any method (Nagel et al. 2014) (see <imgref image1>). 
  
-Within the reviewed papers several methods used to assess the social acceptance or resistance of wind energy were identified (see <imgref image1>). Generally distinguished methods can be grouped into two sub-categories: “Methods of data acquisition” and “Methods of analysis”. Furthermore, a categorisation into “technical methods” that relate to gather information and “analysis methods” that are to evaluate the information is possible. Since research papers can apply different or a combination of methods, findings show that there is not necessarily a “clear” methodology to assess the social acceptance of wind energyOnly one of the articles has not used or mentioned any method (Nagel et al2014) (see <imgref image1>). 8-O //This picture is a bit hard to read. It would be nicer to have this information in an actual table.//+<imgcaption image1|Methods applied in the literature (own figure). Please click on the figure to see the full resolution.>{{:methods_synopsis.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>
  
 +Concerning the first category "Methods of data acquisition", the most applied method refers to the literature review. It is widely uniform, since most of the authors review previous writings related to the respective topic of the study to draw conclusions by verifying or opposing their assumption (e.g. Wüstenhagen 2007, Gross 2007, Jones & Eiser 2009, 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Cowell 2010). Notwithstanding, Aitken (2010) indicates limits and restrictions to literature reviews since they are based on certain key assumption, for instance that the majority of the public is in favour of wind power or that opponents are ignorant or misinformed. Predefined assumptions have implications for how topics are discussed in policy and practice fields, therefore must consider that objectors to wind energy „are not always wrong“ (Aitken 2010: 1834).
  
-<imgcaption image1|Methods applied in the literature>{{:methods_new_jw.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption> 
  
-Concerning the first category "Methods of data acquisition", the most applied method refers to the literature review. It is widely uniform, since most of the authors review previous writings related to the respective topic of the study to draw conclusions by verifying or opposing their assumption (e.g. Wüstenhagen 2007, Gross 2007, Jones & Eiser 2009, 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Cowell 2010). Notwithstanding, Aitken (2010) indicates limits and restrictions to literature reviews since they are based on certain key assumption, for instance that the majority of the public is in favour of wind power or that opponents are ignorant or misinformed.:?: //How do these key assumptions influence the result?// +The second most frequent applied method is to acquire information through the distribution and collection of questionnaires. These can entail closed and/or open questions and are directed to a sample of the (general) population in order to assess their attitudes and perceptions towards various aspects of wind energy (e.g. Swofford & Slattery 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren & McFadyen 2010). __Jones & Eiser (2009 and 2010) exemplarily used the same questionnaire for two studies from 2009 and 2010, focusing on different sections for the respective aim of the study. This shows that even the research-set up may have a decisive influence on the outcome of the social acceptance at hand.
- +
-The second most frequent applied method is to acquire information through the distribution and collection of questionnaires. These can entail closed and/or open questions and are directed to a sample of the (general) population in order to assess their attitudes and perceptions towards various aspects of wind energy (e.g. Swofford & Slattery 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren & McFadyen 2010). __Jones & Eiser (2009 and 2010) even used the same questionnaire for two studies from 2009 and 2010, focusing on different sections for the respective aim of the study.__:?: //Why is that important to know?//+
  
 Furthermore, another common method to gather information is the analysis of case studies (e.g. Sovacool & Ratan 2012, Loring 2007, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008). This analysis can range from only investigating one case e.g. a pilot case study (Gross 2007), up to nearly twenty case studies (Wüstenhagen 2007).  Furthermore, another common method to gather information is the analysis of case studies (e.g. Sovacool & Ratan 2012, Loring 2007, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008). This analysis can range from only investigating one case e.g. a pilot case study (Gross 2007), up to nearly twenty case studies (Wüstenhagen 2007). 
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 The second most frequent way to deal with the information is to create an acceptance matrix, which displays the expected behaviour of a person, e.g. adoption, support, rejection, resistance; conditional on the personal valuation of the issue and the nature of the reaction (Gross 2007). Other, more than once applied methods are to elaborate a constellation analysis based on actor network theory or to analyse the “three dimensions” consisting of the socio-political, community and market acceptance.  The second most frequent way to deal with the information is to create an acceptance matrix, which displays the expected behaviour of a person, e.g. adoption, support, rejection, resistance; conditional on the personal valuation of the issue and the nature of the reaction (Gross 2007). Other, more than once applied methods are to elaborate a constellation analysis based on actor network theory or to analyse the “three dimensions” consisting of the socio-political, community and market acceptance. 
- 
  
 ==== 2. Factors==== ==== 2. Factors====
-Marike 
- 
  
 The review of the literature identified 41 different factors that can have an influence on the attitude towards wind energy – both, in a positive or a negative way. The factors were bundled into eight groups: Socio-political framework, socio-economic factors, procedural factors, set of values, other personal characteristics, perception of impacts, technological/ physical features and environmental impacts. Generally, these groups are similar to those of the VESPA categorization by Petrova (2016), which differentiates into: 1) visual/landscape, 2) environmental, 3) socioeconomic, and 4) procedural aspects. The review of the literature identified 41 different factors that can have an influence on the attitude towards wind energy – both, in a positive or a negative way. The factors were bundled into eight groups: Socio-political framework, socio-economic factors, procedural factors, set of values, other personal characteristics, perception of impacts, technological/ physical features and environmental impacts. Generally, these groups are similar to those of the VESPA categorization by Petrova (2016), which differentiates into: 1) visual/landscape, 2) environmental, 3) socioeconomic, and 4) procedural aspects.
-The three additional categories ‘set of values’, ‘other personal characteristics’, ‘perception of impacts’ address more explicitly the more subjective determinants of attitudes that are mentioned in literature (see <imgref image2>). +The three additional categories ‘set of values’, ‘other personal characteristics’, ‘perception of impacts’ address more explicitly the more subjective determinants of attitudes that are mentioned in literature (see <imgref image2>). 
- +
-<imgcaption image2|Factors mentioned in the literature>{{:factors_neu_jw.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>+
  
 +<imgcaption image2|Factors mentioned in the literature (own figure). Please click on the figure to see the full resolution. >{{:factors_synopsis.jpg?700|}}</imgcaption>
  
  
 ===i) NIMBY and beyond=== ===i) NIMBY and beyond===
-In the context of opposition against wind energy development, the term NIMBY (“Not in my backyard”) still is a very frequently mobilized term that aims to describe people that are generally for wind energy but do not approve of its implementation close to their living area. FIXME //Needs to be defined in the Table as well.// However, there is growing criticism towards the usage of this concept because it is seen as a simplistic representation of the public attitudes (Friedl & Reichl 2016), that characterizes opponents as merely selfish persons (e.g. Wolsink 2000; Devine-Wright 2009). Moreover, the concept does not explain why people perceive certain impacts as they do (Bidwell 2013). When using the concept of NIMBY it is thus also impossible of reflecting that the parallel existence of the general acceptance of renewable energies and the opposition to new projects in the vicinity might after all not be a paradox or deviant behaviour, but rather a psychologically ordinary reaction to social change (Batel & Devine-Wright 2015). Finally, it stands in the way to the important analysis of the reasons for which people support and welcome wind energy (e.g. Bidwell 2013; Petrova 2016). NIMBY as such is thus not used so often as major argument in current literature on social acceptance of wind energy – Yuan et al. (2015) might be an exception to that – , but actually frequently serves as justification for a more detailed analysis of the underlying factors and drivers of public opinion. :-D+In the context of opposition against wind energy development, the term NIMBY (“Not in my backyard”) still is a very frequently mobilized term that aims to describe people that are generally for wind energy but do not approve of its implementation close to their living area. However, there is growing criticism towards the usage of this concept because it is seen as a simplistic representation of the public attitudes (Friedl & Reichl 2016), that characterizes opponents as merely selfish persons (e.g. Wolsink 2000; Devine-Wright 2009). Moreover, the concept does not explain why people perceive certain impacts as they do (Bidwell 2013). When using the concept of NIMBY it is thus also impossible of reflecting that the parallel existence of the general acceptance of renewable energies and the opposition to new projects in the vicinity might after all not be a paradox or deviant behaviour, but rather a psychologically ordinary reaction to social change (Batel & Devine-Wright 2015). Finally, it stands in the way to the important analysis of the reasons for which people support and welcome wind energy (e.g. Bidwell 2013; Petrova 2016). NIMBY as such is thus not used so often as major argument in current literature on social acceptance of wind energy – Yuan et al. (2015) might be an exception to that – , but actually frequently serves as justification for a more detailed analysis of the underlying factors and drivers of public opinion.
  
 ===ii) Physical features=== ===ii) Physical features===
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 ==Distance, Location & Visibility== ==Distance, Location & Visibility==
  
-Even though the NIMBY concept with its strong interlinkage to distance is ever less used as such, distance as a factor influencing public attitudes remains a recurrent topic within literature, probably not least due to the constant debates in society. Residents frequently wish for wind development to be realized at a larger distance to residential areas (Meyerhoff, Ohl & Hartje 2010). However, it has been found several times, that there is no significant relation between the distance to the wind parks and the level of acceptance of wind energy development (e.g. Hübner 2013; Hübner & Pohl 2015; Groth & Vogt 2014; Petrova 2016). Inhabitants of cities that were further away from existing wind energy developments did not show a higher rate of acceptance than those closer by (Petrova 2016). While some authors contemplate whether this might be linked to the specific topological features of the area (Groth & Vogt 2014), others come to the conclusion that there are simply more significant factors, like the belonging to another social community (Firestone et al. 2012), that shape the attitude. However, even though Guo et al. (2015) also hold up the general assumption of several co-existing factors, he notes different findings that actually describe an “inverse u-shaped” relation between acceptance and distance to wind parks. His research documentsthat the people of the interviewed communities in China displayed comparatively lower acceptance for wind energy developments in close distance to their community but also very far away on a National level. The highest acceptance could be recorded for developments within the scope of their province. Guo et al. framed this attitude with the phrase “not in my backyard, but not far away from me” and related it to the expected economic benefits that are perceived too weak on a National basis and are outweighed by the environmental impacts on the local scale. However, the author considered that this relation might be specific for the particular region, a reflection that is confirmed by van der Horst (2007), who acknowledges distance as an important factor shaping public attitudes but depending strongly on the local context.+Even though the NIMBY concept with its strong interlinkage to distance is ever less used as such, distance as a factor influencing public attitudes remains a recurrent topic within literature, probably not least due to the constant debates in society. Residents frequently wish for wind development to be realized at a larger distance to residential areas (Meyerhoff, Ohl & Hartje 2010). However, it has been found several times, that there is no significant relation between the distance to the wind parks and the level of acceptance of wind energy development (e.g. Hübner 2013; Hübner & Pohl 2015; Groth & Vogt 2014; Petrova 2016). Inhabitants of cities that were further away from existing wind energy developments did not show a higher rate of acceptance than those closer by (Petrova 2016). While some authors contemplate whether this might be linked to the specific topological features of the area (Groth & Vogt 2014), others come to the conclusion that there are simply more significant factors, like the belonging to another social community (Firestone et al. 2012), that shape the attitude. However, even though Guo et al. (2015) also hold up the general assumption of several co-existing factors, he notes different findings that actually describe an “inverse u-shaped” relation between acceptance and distance to wind parks. His research documents that the people of the interviewed communities in China displayed comparatively lower acceptance for wind energy developments in close distance to their community but also very far away on a National level. The highest acceptance could be recorded for developments within the scope of their province. Guo et al. framed this attitude with the phrase “not in my backyard, but not far away from me” and related it to the expected economic benefits that are perceived too weak on a National basis and are outweighed by the environmental impacts on the local scale. However, the author considered that this relation might be specific for the particular region, a reflection that is confirmed by van der Horst (2007), who acknowledges distance as an important factor shaping public attitudes but depending strongly on the local context.
  
 Closely related to the question of distance is the issue of visibility of the wind turbines, which is sometimes described as the main cause for community opposition (Cowell 2010; Groth & Vogt 2014). Moreover, a significant link between the visual appearance of wind turbines and the individual perception of decreasing property value (Walker et al. 2014) or the nuisance level (Arezes et al. 2014) was identified. Other authors however, judge visibility rather as one possible factor amongst others that is not always significant (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Firestone et al. 2012) or even without importance, as people that see them daily feel not more disturbed than those that see them only seldom (Petrova 2016). In this context, it is furthermore called for a conscious selection of wind farm sites that are aesthetically appropriate locations (Groth & Vogt 2014; Hübner & Löffler 2013). This is important as the location of wind turbines can also influence acceptance regardless of their distance to residential areas, but only on the basis of the value of the surrounding (Cowell 2010; Friedl & Reichl 2016). This does not only mean protected sites, but by far more importantly also visually  beautiful or recreational valuable areas (Johansson & Laike 2007; Cowell 2010). The selection of the site is sometimes judged more important than the specific design or even number of wind turbines (Petrova 2016), even though the latter can be the reason for resistance in the first place (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Jessup 2010). Closely related to the question of distance is the issue of visibility of the wind turbines, which is sometimes described as the main cause for community opposition (Cowell 2010; Groth & Vogt 2014). Moreover, a significant link between the visual appearance of wind turbines and the individual perception of decreasing property value (Walker et al. 2014) or the nuisance level (Arezes et al. 2014) was identified. Other authors however, judge visibility rather as one possible factor amongst others that is not always significant (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Firestone et al. 2012) or even without importance, as people that see them daily feel not more disturbed than those that see them only seldom (Petrova 2016). In this context, it is furthermore called for a conscious selection of wind farm sites that are aesthetically appropriate locations (Groth & Vogt 2014; Hübner & Löffler 2013). This is important as the location of wind turbines can also influence acceptance regardless of their distance to residential areas, but only on the basis of the value of the surrounding (Cowell 2010; Friedl & Reichl 2016). This does not only mean protected sites, but by far more importantly also visually  beautiful or recreational valuable areas (Johansson & Laike 2007; Cowell 2010). The selection of the site is sometimes judged more important than the specific design or even number of wind turbines (Petrova 2016), even though the latter can be the reason for resistance in the first place (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Jessup 2010).
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 Another factor influencing people’s judgements is their education or knowledge base. On the one hand, it could be shown that people with higher education are more open towards the development of new wind parks (Caporale & Lucia 2015), although they would prefer a cautious rather than fast approach (Bidwell 2013). On the other hand, it was noted that the better informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptance they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016). It is seen as essential to inform the public about the usefulness and need of the new project, for example with respect to the development of the green energy market or electricity prices (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Friedl & Reichl 2016). A qualified public understanding of wind energy and its positive as well as negative impacts does not only increase the acceptance but also enables better decisions and evaluation processes (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016). For this, the quality as well as the timing of the information counts: it is seen as decisive what and from where the public first receives information (Petrova 2016) as later on it will be harder to correct not just misinformation or biased information but also the feeling of not having been informed adequately and in time by the responsibles (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Petrova 2016). The latter is an important factor, because if the public perceives to be pushed into something or to receive untrustworthy information, or it simply cannot understand over complex information (Schweizer-Ries 2008) it can severely shape their attitude towards the project (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007) and worsen their perception of negative impacts, e.g. property value loss (Walker et al. 2014).  Another factor influencing people’s judgements is their education or knowledge base. On the one hand, it could be shown that people with higher education are more open towards the development of new wind parks (Caporale & Lucia 2015), although they would prefer a cautious rather than fast approach (Bidwell 2013). On the other hand, it was noted that the better informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptance they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016). It is seen as essential to inform the public about the usefulness and need of the new project, for example with respect to the development of the green energy market or electricity prices (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Friedl & Reichl 2016). A qualified public understanding of wind energy and its positive as well as negative impacts does not only increase the acceptance but also enables better decisions and evaluation processes (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016). For this, the quality as well as the timing of the information counts: it is seen as decisive what and from where the public first receives information (Petrova 2016) as later on it will be harder to correct not just misinformation or biased information but also the feeling of not having been informed adequately and in time by the responsibles (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Petrova 2016). The latter is an important factor, because if the public perceives to be pushed into something or to receive untrustworthy information, or it simply cannot understand over complex information (Schweizer-Ries 2008) it can severely shape their attitude towards the project (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007) and worsen their perception of negative impacts, e.g. property value loss (Walker et al. 2014). 
  
-An influential role in this context of information distribution is taken by the media. Oftentimes, citizens are not directly impacted by a wind development project, but hear about it in the media (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Depending on which impacts and benefits the medium reports, this can have a powerful impact on the formation of the public opinion (Zoellner et al. 2008).FIXME //Reference to your own media analysis.//+An influential role in this context of information distribution is taken by the media. Oftentimes, citizens are not directly impacted by a wind development project, but hear about it in the media (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Depending on which impacts and benefits the medium reports, this can have a powerful impact on the formation of the public opinion (Zoellner et al. 2008 and [[media_analysis|results of the project'media analysis]])
  
 ==Participation== ==Participation==
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 ==Fairness & Trust== ==Fairness & Trust==
  
-In the end, integrating stakeholders and taking their concerns seriously is a move towards achieving fairness or procedural justice. Equal treatment and consideration is not only important because it is legally required (Friedl & Reichl 2016), but also because outcomes and processes that are perceived to be unfair or undemocratic can lead to protests, damaged relationships and divided communities (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007). This can for example be the case, if people feel informed too lately or inadequately informed, or not having the ability to voice their concerns (Larsen et al. 2015; Gross 2007). Moreover, stakeholders can feel unjustly excluded from the planning process and treated inequitable compared to others, for example neighbouring communities (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007). This can threaten their feeling of self-competence linked to their community (Devine-Wright 2009) and can be a particularly sensitive topic in societies with different social groups, for example indigenous populations (Huesca-Pérez, Sheinbaum-Pardo & Köppel 2016). Referring to this, it is also relevant to consider that different aspects of fairness can be important for different groups of stakeholders (Gross 2007): outcome fairness might be particularly relevant for those interested in the overall well-being of the community, outcome favourability for those who can gain or lose from the wind farm and finally process fairness that matters for all (ibid.). To sum up, in cases that the stakeholders have the impression of a fair process, outcomes and sufficient participation possibilities, this influences their evaluation of the entire project (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Hence, they are more welcoming of the project’s implementation (Zoellner et al. 2008)  –  even in the case that the final results do not correspond to their individual wishes (Friedl & Reichl 2016). +In the end, integrating stakeholders and taking their concerns seriously is a move towards achieving fairness or procedural justice. Equal treatment and consideration is not only important because it is legally required (Friedl & Reichl 2016), but also because outcomes and processes that are perceived to be unfair or undemocratic can lead to protests, damaged relationships and divided communities (Groth & Vogt 2014; Gross 2007). This can for example be the case, if people feel to be informed too late or inadequately informed, or not having the ability to voice their concerns (Larsen et al. 2015; Gross 2007). Moreover, stakeholders can feel unjustly excluded from the planning process and treated inequitable compared to others, for example neighbouring communities (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007). This can threaten their feeling of self-competence linked to their community (Devine-Wright 2009) and can be a particularly sensitive topic in societies with different social groups, for example indigenous populations (Huesca-Pérez, Sheinbaum-Pardo & Köppel 2016). Referring to this, it is also relevant to consider that different aspects of fairness can be important for different groups of stakeholders (Gross 2007): outcome fairness might be particularly relevant for those interested in the overall well-being of the community, outcome favourability for those who can gain or lose from the wind farm and finally process fairness that matters for all (ibid.). To sum up, in cases that the stakeholders have the impression of a fair process, outcomes and sufficient participation possibilities, this influences their evaluation of the entire project (Schweizer-Ries 2008). Hence, they are more welcoming of the project’s implementation (Zoellner et al. 2008)  –  even in the case that the final results do not correspond to their individual wishes (Friedl & Reichl 2016). 
  
 However, Walker et al. (2014) as well as Bidwell’s analysis (2013) showed that perceived justice proved only significant in combination with other variables or is overshadowed by other factors and could not predict the general attitude. Similarly, Friedl and Reichl (2016) come to the finding that procedural or distributive justice will only increase the acceptance, if the trust between the local community and the project responsibles is high enough. They are joined in this evaluation by other authors like Jobert (2007) or Wüstenhagen et al. (2007), who link the importance of trust to the high uncertainty and risk involved in new siting processes. However, it is this “trust is the key”, that is harshly criticised by Aitken (2010) for being unduly exploited for the sole aim of removing opposition to wind farms instead of truly trusting in the people’s ability to judge - even sometimes against wind energy. However, Walker et al. (2014) as well as Bidwell’s analysis (2013) showed that perceived justice proved only significant in combination with other variables or is overshadowed by other factors and could not predict the general attitude. Similarly, Friedl and Reichl (2016) come to the finding that procedural or distributive justice will only increase the acceptance, if the trust between the local community and the project responsibles is high enough. They are joined in this evaluation by other authors like Jobert (2007) or Wüstenhagen et al. (2007), who link the importance of trust to the high uncertainty and risk involved in new siting processes. However, it is this “trust is the key”, that is harshly criticised by Aitken (2010) for being unduly exploited for the sole aim of removing opposition to wind farms instead of truly trusting in the people’s ability to judge - even sometimes against wind energy.
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 ==Framework== ==Framework==
  
-Another decisive factor in shaping people’s attitudes is the social and political context, as it is the starting point for the social valuation process of a new project (Schweizer-Ries 2008) and shapes the perceptions (Walker et al. 2014). This becomes visible for example in the case of Firestone et al.’s research (2012), where the community origin mattered significantly more for the general attitude than visibility or place attachment. The author verified this finding that socially constructed aspects find more resonance than physical ones in his more recent work (Firestone, Bates & Knapp 2015). Guo et al. (2015) looker closer at the influence of general public attitudes about environmental issues and about wind power on the development of new wind energy projects. While he found the latter not to have explanatory power, he detected that the general view on the environment has influence on local, communal and regional level preferences concerning further wind energy development (Guo et al. 2015). Johansson and Laike (2007) however also found the general attitude towards wind energy to be decisive. +Another decisive factor in shaping people’s attitudes is the social and political context, as it is the starting point for the social valuation process of a new project (Schweizer-Ries 2008) and shapes the perceptions (Walker et al. 2014). This becomes visible for example in the case of Firestone et al.’s research (2012), where the community origin mattered significantly more for the general attitude than visibility or place attachment. The author verified this finding that socially constructed aspects find more resonance than physical ones in his more recent work (Firestone, Bates & Knapp 2015). Guo et al. (2015) looker closer at the influence of general public attitudes about environmental issues and about wind power on the development of new wind energy projects. While they found the latter not to have explanatory power, they detected that the general view on the environment has influence on local, communal and regional level preferences concerning further wind energy development (Guo et al. 2015). Johansson and Laike (2007) however also found the general attitude towards wind energy to be decisive. 
  
 Closely related to this is the factor of political or policy acceptance. Its influence on the project’s success is seen as essential by several authors (Wüstenhagen, Wolsink & Bürer 2007; Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Friedl & Reichl 2016). Some authors identified specifically energy security related policy and issues as influential for the project’s outcome and acceptance (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Firestone et al. 2012). Closely related to this is the factor of political or policy acceptance. Its influence on the project’s success is seen as essential by several authors (Wüstenhagen, Wolsink & Bürer 2007; Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Friedl & Reichl 2016). Some authors identified specifically energy security related policy and issues as influential for the project’s outcome and acceptance (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Firestone et al. 2012).
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 Nevertheless, Firestone (2012) highlights that this potential does not have the slightest impacts on acceptance if it does not become clear to the population, which is actually referring back to the above-mentioned importance of adequate information. Nevertheless, Firestone (2012) highlights that this potential does not have the slightest impacts on acceptance if it does not become clear to the population, which is actually referring back to the above-mentioned importance of adequate information.
  
-==Impacts on previous economic use& property value==+==Impacts on previous economic use & property value==
  
-Even though is estimated that wind energy can create jobs, it is a frequent concern in the public that it might also negatively impact on previous economic uses. One of the main fears is the disturbance of touristic activities in the regions, where wind energy deployment is planned (Jessup 2010; Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Cowell 2010; Groth & Vogt 2014; Firestone et al. 2012). If not specifically respected and properly assessed in touristic locations, this might become a major point of frustration (Larsen et al. 2015; Westernberg et al. 2015). Other concerns can be the harm to the local fishery, in case of offshore wind development (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016), the conflict with agricultural land-use (Larsen et al. 2015; Jessup 2010) or quite frequently the negative impact on the property value (Groth & Vogt 2014; Jessup 2010). Petrova (2016) asserts in this context, that the perception of value loss varies between the locations and depends on the specific community. Jones and Eiser (2009) come moreover to the conclusion that house owners are more likely to be unfavourable of wind energy.  Extensively researched however has this topic been by Walkers et al. (2014). He cites sources, which conclude that on average no losses could be found so far, but objects that this can differ on the individual basis and that it is also hard to account for very close distance properties (<800m). He identified people that do perceive that a value loss has taken place and found a statistical relation between the perception of property loss and lower acceptance (ibid.). +Even though it is estimated that wind energy can create jobs, it is a frequent concern in the public that it might also negatively impact on previous economic uses. One of the main fears is the disturbance of touristic activities in the regions, where wind energy deployment is planned (Jessup 2010; Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016; Cowell 2010; Groth & Vogt 2014; Firestone et al. 2012). If not specifically respected and properly assessed in touristic locations, this might become a major point of frustration (Larsen et al. 2015; Westernberg et al. 2015). Other concerns can be the harm to the local fishery, in case of offshore wind development (Shiau & Chuen-Yu 2016), the conflict with agricultural land-use (Larsen et al. 2015; Jessup 2010) or quite frequently the negative impact on the property value (Groth & Vogt 2014; Jessup 2010). Petrova (2016) asserts in this context, that the perception of value loss varies between the locations and depends on the specific community. Jones and Eiser (2009) come moreover to the conclusion that house owners are more likely to be unfavourable of wind energy.  Extensively researched however has this topic been by Walker et al. (2014). They cite sources, which conclude that on average no losses could be found so far, but objects that this can differ on the individual basis and that it is also hard to account for very close distance properties (<800m). They identified people that do perceive that a value loss has taken place and found a statistical relation between the perception of property loss and lower acceptance (ibid.). 
  
 ==Financial involvement of community members== ==Financial involvement of community members==
  
-Another relevant economic factor mentioned in the studied literature is the question of financial community involvement in the wind park development. There is a high public support for the idea of local partnerships (Devine-Wright 2005) or the approach of selling financial interests to local authorities (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Jones & Eiser 2009) and it is estimated that this can reduce conflicts (Breukers & Wolsink 2007) and increase acceptance (Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). Musall and Kuik (2011) and Warren and Fayden (2010) compared cases with and without community sharing or community ownership and found that acceptance is higher, where the sharing takes place or wind turbines are owned by the community.+Another relevant economic factor mentioned in the studied literature is the question of financial community involvement in the wind park development. There is a high public support for the idea of local partnerships (Devine-Wright 2005) or the approach of selling financial interests to local authorities (Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Jones & Eiser 2009) and it is estimated that this can reduce conflicts (Breukers & Wolsink 2007) and increase acceptance (Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). Musall Kuik (2011) and Warren Fayden (2010) compared cases with and without community sharing or community ownership and found that acceptance is higher, where the sharing takes place or wind turbines are owned by the community.
  
 ===vi) Environmental impacts=== ===vi) Environmental impacts===
  
-Generally, in the reviewed literature, there was not much on the importance of environmental impacts for the acceptance, so that one could easily agree to the opinion that socio-economic benefits are often more relevant than environmental concerns (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Guo et al. 2015). It seems, that negative impacts on the environment are relevant for the acceptance of wind energy depending on the presence of certain environmental beliefs (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Rogers et al. 2008)  and the specific context. Correspondingly, some authors come to the conclusion that negative impacts on biodiversity do not significantly influence the acceptance (Hübner & Löffler 2013; Caporale & Lucia 2015), while other esteem it to be among the main reasons for people to switch from support to opposition (Firestone et al. 2012),  an important concern of the land owners (Huesca-Pérez, Sheinbaum-Pardo & Köppel 2016) and a source of serious frustration if not taken seriously (Larsen et al. 2015). Even when looking at the impact on a specific species – the red kite – it seems to have an influence in one case (Cowell 2010) but not in the other (Meyerhoff, Ohl & Hartje 2010). Moreover, Guo et al. (2015) put forward that the concern for environmental issues and its influence on acceptance varies depending on whether the wind energy project is planned on community or national level. Finally, Jessup (2010) mentions how the issue of impacts on birds is indeed brought forward most commonly by bird protection groups but is also sometimes mobilized by people whose focus is the landscape conservation.+Generally, in the reviewed literature, there was not much on the importance of environmental impacts for the acceptance, so that one could easily agree on the assumption that socio-economic benefits are often more relevant than environmental concerns (Caporale & Lucia 2015; Guo et al. 2015). It seems, that negative impacts on the environment are relevant for the acceptance of wind energy depending on the presence of certain environmental beliefs (Hammami, Chtourou & Triki 2016; Rogers et al. 2008)  and the specific context. Correspondingly, some authors come to the conclusion that negative impacts on biodiversity do not significantly influence the acceptance (Hübner & Löffler 2013; Caporale & Lucia 2015), while other esteem it to be among the main reasons for people to switch from support to opposition (Firestone et al. 2012),  an important concern of the land owners (Huesca-Pérez, Sheinbaum-Pardo & Köppel 2016) and a source of frustration if not taken seriously (Larsen et al. 2015). Even when looking at the impact on a specific species – the red kite – it seems to have an influence in one case (Cowell 2010) but not in the other (Meyerhoff, Ohl & Hartje 2010). Moreover, Guo et al. (2015) put forward that the concern for environmental issues and its influence on acceptance varies depending on whether the wind energy project is planned on community or national level. Finally, Jessup (2010) mentions how the issue of impacts on birds is indeed brought forward most commonly by bird protection groups but is also sometimes mobilized by people whose focus is the landscape conservation.
  
 ==Climate Change Mitigation== ==Climate Change Mitigation==
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 ==== 3. Recommendations==== ==== 3. Recommendations====
  
-Jessica+The last category groups the recommendations of improving the social acceptance of wind energy into the four subcategories: “education”, “economic approaches”, “procedural improvements” and “other” (see figure 3). During the literature review, these four aspects emerged as the key starting points in order to enhance a positive acceptance towards wind energy facilities. The subcategory “other” thereby comprises mainly compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats or supporting community projects. Hereinafter, these four subcategories are explained in further detail (Fig. 3). 
  
-The last category groups the recommendations of improving the social acceptance of wind energy into the four subcategories: “education”, “economic approaches”, “procedural improvements” and “other” (see figure 3). During the literature review, these four aspects emerged as the key starting points in order to enhance a positive acceptance towards wind energy facilitiesThe subcategory “other” thereby comprises mainly compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats or supporting community projects. Hereinafter, these four subcategories are explained in further detail (Fig. 3)+<imgcaption image3|Overall recommendations of the literature (own figure). Please click on the figure to see the full resolution>{{ :recommendations_synopsis.jpg?700 |Overall recommendations of the literature }}</imgcaption>
  
-<imgcaption image3|Overall recommendations of the literature>{{ :recommendations_new_jw.jpg?700 |Overall recommendations of the literature }}</imgcaption> 
  
  
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 One discrepancy becomes clear in the literature analysed. On the one hand, authors point out that educational measures should be taken more aggressively for residents living close to a wind farm as the acceptance of wind turbines appears to decrease with decreasing proximity of housings to the installed turbines (Swofford & Slattery 2010). On the other hand, some authors call attention to the observation that the general public is generally quite able to engage with major scientific and technological issues and therefore “providing people with the ‘correct information’ or addressing concerns with generic pro-wind argument is unlikely to be effective in addressing local opposition” (Jones & Eiser 2009: 4610). Hence, Jones & Eiser (2009) would support the warnings that advise against a presumption that opposition is motivated simply by a poor-understanding or knowledge-deficit of the issue at hand. However, Bush & Hoagland (2016) acknowledge that the gap between scientific and lay knowledge only diminished late in the debate about the offshore wind farm Cape Wind facility off Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Other authors also state that neither knowledge nor public participation necessarily enhances acceptability (Hammami et al. 2016). One discrepancy becomes clear in the literature analysed. On the one hand, authors point out that educational measures should be taken more aggressively for residents living close to a wind farm as the acceptance of wind turbines appears to decrease with decreasing proximity of housings to the installed turbines (Swofford & Slattery 2010). On the other hand, some authors call attention to the observation that the general public is generally quite able to engage with major scientific and technological issues and therefore “providing people with the ‘correct information’ or addressing concerns with generic pro-wind argument is unlikely to be effective in addressing local opposition” (Jones & Eiser 2009: 4610). Hence, Jones & Eiser (2009) would support the warnings that advise against a presumption that opposition is motivated simply by a poor-understanding or knowledge-deficit of the issue at hand. However, Bush & Hoagland (2016) acknowledge that the gap between scientific and lay knowledge only diminished late in the debate about the offshore wind farm Cape Wind facility off Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Other authors also state that neither knowledge nor public participation necessarily enhances acceptability (Hammami et al. 2016).
  
-Against this background, the way of providing people with information is complex. Generally, the often-proposed way to promote sound environmental and technological education is either by wind energy planners, independently, or by institutionalisation. Swofford & Slattery 2010 as well as Friedl & Reichl (2016) recommend to establish educational programs or information campaigns in areas of planned projects. Covering information about specific or proposed wind energy projects, these programs should also inform the public about the advantages and disadvantages of renewable technologies as well as climate change and energy policy. Swofford & Slattery 2010 emphasize that wind energy must be shown to be more than a financial investment and perceived harm to the aesthetics of landscape (Bush & Hoagland 2016), but also advantages such as environmentally benign sources of electricity production and a new form of carbon mitigation shall not be left unspoken. Contrary, other findings show that educating respondents about the global benefits of wind energy will most probably not produce the desired increase in project support (Petrova 2014). In fact, „credible, adequate, and timely information about the local impacts of wind energy“ is described as the key for local acceptance (Petrova 2014). Access to shares is thereby equally important for providing information within permitting processes (Huesca et al. 2016). But Sauter & Watson 2007 emphasize that not alone the content of information is important, but also the source of information. “Local and well-known mediators are more likely to have an impact on behavioural changes“, according to Sauter & Watson 2007.+In the light of the above, the way of providing people with information is complex. Generally, the often-proposed way to promote sound environmental and technological education is either by wind energy planners, independently, or by institutionalisation. Swofford & Slattery (2010as well as Friedl & Reichl (2016) recommend establishing educational programs or information campaigns in areas of planned projects. Covering information about specific or proposed wind energy projects, these programs should also inform the public about the advantages and disadvantages of renewable technologies as well as climate change and energy policy. Swofford & Slattery 2010 emphasize that wind energy must be shown to be more than a financial investment and perceived harm to the aesthetics of landscape (Bush & Hoagland 2016), but also advantages such as environmentally benign sources of electricity production and a new form of carbon mitigation shall not be left unspoken. Contrary, other findings show that educating respondents about the global benefits of wind energy will most probably not produce the desired increase in project support (Petrova 2014). In fact, „credible, adequate, and timely information about the local impacts of wind energy“ is described as the key for local acceptance (Petrova 2014: 1292). Access to shares is thereby equally important for providing information within permitting processes (Huesca et al. 2016). But Sauter & Watson 2007 emphasize that not alone the content of information is important, but also the source of information. “Local and well-known mediators are more likely to have an impact on behavioural changes“, according to Sauter & Watson 2007: 2777.
  
 Institutionalisation is one opportunity to not rely on spread information by individual wind energy developers, but to use existing education infrastructure, e.g. local schools and teachers to include in their curriculum (Swofford & Slattery 2010). Other recommendations can also be identified like to establish a national information hub that collects and provides resources for decision-makers and electricity users or to provide free energy audits and workshops for all electricity consumers (Sovacool 2009). Institutionalisation is one opportunity to not rely on spread information by individual wind energy developers, but to use existing education infrastructure, e.g. local schools and teachers to include in their curriculum (Swofford & Slattery 2010). Other recommendations can also be identified like to establish a national information hub that collects and provides resources for decision-makers and electricity users or to provide free energy audits and workshops for all electricity consumers (Sovacool 2009).
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 ===ii) Economic approaches=== ===ii) Economic approaches===
  
-With respect to measures of economic nature, many articles suggest the creation of economic benefits from wind turbines for the local community in order to enhance social acceptance (e.g. Jessup 2010, Khorsandi 2015, Spiess 2015, Wüstenhagen 2007, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Huesca al. 2016, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren McFadyen, Zoellner et al. 2008, Strazzeran et al. 2012, Hübner et al. 2013, Hübner et al. 2014, Hübner & Pohl 2015). This also holds good for the fact that for some people the economic benefits outweigh any environmental and social costs (Groth & Vogt 2016). Economic benefits from wind turbines also seem to act as monetary compensation in order to prevail over perceived negative impacts, such as landscape degradation and noise emissions (Groth & Vogt 2016). The following statement from a survey by Groth & Vogt (2016) reveals: „If we have to hear and see them every day, which I do, it would at least be nice to benefit from them.“ The survey by Groth & Vogt (2016) makes also clear that many residents have an unclear understanding of why locally produced energy does not stay in the area benefitting local residents. +With respect to measures of economic nature, many articles suggest the creation of economic benefits from wind turbines for the local community in order to enhance social acceptance (e.g. Jessup 2010, Khorsand 2015, Spiess 2015, Wüstenhagen 2007, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Huesca et al. 2016, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Rogers et al. 2008, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Warren McFadyen, Zoellner et al. 2008, Strazzeran et al. 2012, Hübner et al. 2013, Hübner et al. 2014, Hübner & Pohl 2015). This also holds good for the fact that for some people the economic benefits outweigh any environmental and social costs (Groth & Vogt 2016). Economic benefits from wind turbines also seem to act as monetary compensation in order to prevail over perceived negative impacts, such as landscape degradation and noise emissions (Groth & Vogt 2016). The following statement from a survey by Groth & Vogt (2016: 257) reveals: „If we have to hear and see them every day, which I do, it would at least be nice to benefit from them.“ The survey by Groth & Vogt (2016) makes also clear that many residents have an unclear understanding of why locally produced energy does not stay in the area benefitting local residents. 
  
-To meet these concerns, community ownership of wind turbines is one option for collective investments and share of the profits (c.f. Groth Vogt 2014, Jobert 2007, Sovacool Ratan 2012, Enevoldsen Sovacool 2016, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Maruyama et al. 2007, Sauter Watson 2007, Upham Garcia Perez, Warren McFadyen, Strazzeran et al. 2012).+To meet these concerns, community ownership of wind turbines is one option for collective investments and share of the profits (c.f. Groth Vogt 2014, Jobert 2007, Sovacool Ratan 2012, Enevoldsen Sovacool 2016, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Maruyama et al. 2007, Sauter Watson 2007, Upham Garcia Perez, Warren McFadyen, Strazzeran et al. 2012).
  
-In the literature, it is becoming plain that community owned wind turbines might also resolve aspects concerning siting regulations and aesthetics (Groth & Vogt 2016). This portends for the fact that community investments are able to compensate perceived impacts and can help to counteract indignation that only landowners profit monetarily from installed turbines while the neighbour has to look at it (Jordan et al. 2007). Therefore, community ownership is one recommendation to reduce the gap between “a few winners and many losers” (Jordan et al. 2007). According to Breukers & Wolsink 2007 and Walker et al. 2010 in Groth & Vogt (2016) community owned wind turbines, albeit, may not ensure certain success. +In the literature, it is becoming plain that community owned wind turbines might also resolve aspects concerning siting regulations and aesthetics (Groth & Vogt 2016). This portends for the fact that community investments are able to compensate perceived impacts and can help to counteract indignation that only landowners profit monetarily from installed turbines while the neighbour has to look at it (Jordan et al. 2007). Therefore, community ownership is one recommendation to reduce the gap between “a few winners and many losers” (Jordan et al. 2007). According to Breukers & Wolsink 2007 and Walker et al. 2010 in Groth & Vogt (2016) community owned wind turbines, albeit, may not ensure certain success since trust plays a vital part in the possibilities and outcomes of community projects. However, “just because a project is given a community label“, trust and community cohesion between local residents and lead groups is not always guaranteed (Walker 2010: 2662). Likewise Breukers & Wolsink (2007) note that a lack of local involvements due to hesitant attitudes of local councillors can weaken local commitment and support of wind energy projects.
  
 Apart from collective ownership, financial benefits from wind turbines by means of private energy supply may also increase the social acceptance (Spiess et al 2015). Guo et al. (2015) also recommend to prioritize hiring local residents for plants in operations, maintenance and manufacturing as wind energy development can increase employment in the country. Against this background, important for acceptance seems to be that profits of the wind turbines are distributed in the local territory; exemplary this can either be achieved by local ownership of turbines or other financial benefits (cf. Strazzera et al. 2012). Apart from collective ownership, financial benefits from wind turbines by means of private energy supply may also increase the social acceptance (Spiess et al 2015). Guo et al. (2015) also recommend to prioritize hiring local residents for plants in operations, maintenance and manufacturing as wind energy development can increase employment in the country. Against this background, important for acceptance seems to be that profits of the wind turbines are distributed in the local territory; exemplary this can either be achieved by local ownership of turbines or other financial benefits (cf. Strazzera et al. 2012).
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 ===iii) Procedural improvements=== ===iii) Procedural improvements===
  
-By far most recommendations aim at aspects of the planning process. The recommendations range from an ameliorated public participation and information integrated in the planning process, to other procedural measures that affect either the planning system itself, such as strengthened “bottom-up” approaches (e.g. Groth & Vogt 2014, Hammami et al. 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Hübner et al. 2013) or “clearer” and standardized planning frameworks (e.g. Friedl & Reichl 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Strazzeran et al. 2012). Recommendations also address the stakeholders of the wind energy planning system, such as project developers (e.g. Khorsand 2015, Spiess 2015) or even politicians (e.g. Friedl & Reichl 2016).+By far most recommendations aim at aspects of the planning process. The recommendations range from an ameliorated public participation and information integrated in the planning process, to other procedural measures that affect either the planning system itself, such as strengthened “bottom-up” approaches that again target the public participation (e.g. Groth & Vogt 2014, Hammami et al. 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Schweizer-Ries 2008, Hübner et al. 2013) or “clearer” and standardized planning frameworks (e.g. Friedl & Reichl 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010, Strazzeran et al. 2012). Recommendations also address the stakeholders of the wind energy planning system, such as project developers (e.g. Khorsand 2015, Spiess 2015) or even politicians (e.g. Friedl & Reichl 2016).
  
 As previously mentioned, education as a crucial issue to foster acceptance seems also to go along with the possibility of an early, sustained and reciprocal public participation in the planning process. The four levels of participation - starting from giving information, enabling consultation, cooperation and ending with the self-empowerment (Friedl & Reichl 2016) - are equally important. Each level constitutes a starting point where public participation might be enhanced. Moreover, a call for an ascendency to a higher level of participation, for instance from the level of “providing information” to “enabling consultation” is often recommended in the literature in order to enhance social acceptance of wind energy (Huesca et al. 2016). Obviously, this level of consultation is often addressed with the term “participation” in the literature.  As previously mentioned, education as a crucial issue to foster acceptance seems also to go along with the possibility of an early, sustained and reciprocal public participation in the planning process. The four levels of participation - starting from giving information, enabling consultation, cooperation and ending with the self-empowerment (Friedl & Reichl 2016) - are equally important. Each level constitutes a starting point where public participation might be enhanced. Moreover, a call for an ascendency to a higher level of participation, for instance from the level of “providing information” to “enabling consultation” is often recommended in the literature in order to enhance social acceptance of wind energy (Huesca et al. 2016). Obviously, this level of consultation is often addressed with the term “participation” in the literature. 
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 According to approaches like these, Huesca et al. (2016) makes clear that a „more integrated approach shows that information, consultation and participation are key to the success of a wind farm project“. Equally, Hammami et al. (2016) states the possibility that the key of public participation is that it enhances opportunities outcome favourability and outcome fairness (Hammami et al. 2016) and to make a meaningful contribution in the decision-making process (Jami & Walsh 2014).  According to approaches like these, Huesca et al. (2016) makes clear that a „more integrated approach shows that information, consultation and participation are key to the success of a wind farm project“. Equally, Hammami et al. (2016) states the possibility that the key of public participation is that it enhances opportunities outcome favourability and outcome fairness (Hammami et al. 2016) and to make a meaningful contribution in the decision-making process (Jami & Walsh 2014). 
  
-Many articles also call for qualified participation that is characterised by the creation of guidance for public participation (Baur & Dorfinger 2015). However, other authors suggest that project managers should be wary of ‘recipes’ for participation as recipes are nonspecific, and „thus fail to take into account the specificities of the particular socio-technical assembly implicated by each unique project“ (Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010). Indeed, one must consider that approaches that are close to best practice examples do not necessarily meet success (Friedl & Reichl 2016). By way of example, in an energy infrastructure project in Austria, all criteria of an impact assessment and economic efficiency calculation were agreed in between the local initiatives and project planners as well as experts. However, local initiatives still doubted the credibility of the assessments when it finally came to the implementation of the project (Friedl & Reichl 2016).+Many articles also call for qualified participation that is characterised by the creation of guidance for public participation (Baur & Dorfinger 2015). However, other authors suggest that project managers should be wary of ‘recipes’ for participationas recipes are nonspecific, and „thus fail to take into account the specificities of the particular socio-technical assembly implicated by each unique project“ (Jolivet & Heiskanen 2010). Indeed, one must consider that approaches that are close to best practice examples do not necessarily meet success (Friedl & Reichl 2016). By way of example, in an energy infrastructure project in Austria, all criteria of an impact assessment and economic efficiency calculation were agreed in between the local initiatives and project planners as well as experts. However, local initiatives still doubted the credibility of the assessments when it finally came to the implementation of the project (Friedl & Reichl 2016).
  
-The time of participation of a developing wind project is nevertheless one crucial factor. An early involvement of the community helps to gain „mutual support of stakeholders, raise public awareness about the issues and complexity of balancing stakeholders’ requirements/needs/interests, provide information to develop a better understanding of the issue on hand and, identify key local environmental knowledge“ (Jami & Walsh 2014).  +The time of participation of a developing wind project is nevertheless one crucial factor. An early involvement of the community helps to gain „mutual support of stakeholders, raise public awareness about the issues and complexity of balancing stakeholders’ requirements/needs/interests, provide information to develop a better understanding of the issue on hand and, identify key local environmental knowledge“ (Jami & Walsh 2014: 200).  
-Several authors emphasize that often the planning system itself needs improvements. Many recommendations to enhance social acceptance embrace the procedural justice and fairness in planning and implementing the project (Friedl & Reichl 2016, Gross et al. 2007). In order to achieve this status, transparency and dialogs are of importance with due regard to legal requirements in order to enable trust (Friedl & Reichl 2016, Wüstenhagen 2007). Likewise, bottom-up projects can deliver a range of benefits that do not materialise from top–down as benefits are directly address the community (Warren & McFayden 2010).+Several authors emphasize that often the planning system itself needs improvements. Many recommendations to enhance social acceptance embrace the procedural justice and fairness in planning and implementing the project (Friedl & Reichl 2016, Gross et al. 2007). In order to achieve this status, transparency and dialogs are of importance with regard to legal requirements in order to enable trust (Friedl & Reichl 2016, Wüstenhagen 2007). Likewise, bottom-up projects can deliver a range of benefits that do not materialise from top–down as benefits directly address the community (Warren & McFayden 2010).
  
-Other authors emphasise that policymakers and developers should improve their energy decision-making locally and regionally „by ensuring they understand a town's renewable energy perceptions and preferences before installation begins (Petrova 2014). In support of this, Petrova (2014) introduces the so-called  “ENUF” framework: policymakers and developers engage local communities, never use Nimby as „it is a pejorative term and an insufficient descriptor of motivations in the community“, understand different perceptions and processes, and facilitate long-term discussions in order to achieve acceptance. “ENUF” for that reason might provide a guideline to contribute to a fair and just planning process, claimed before by Friedl & Reichl 2016 and Gross et al. 2007. Recommendations whence also address several stakeholders. Integrating selected experts (Fast 2013, Jones & Eiser 2010) and an access to specialist knowledge (Jones & Eiser 2010, Gross 2007, Walker et al. 2010, Hübner et al. 2014) may also enhance the acceptance towards local wind energy projects.+Other authors emphasise that policymakers and developers should improve their energy decision-making locally and regionally „by ensuring they understand a town's renewable energy perceptions and preferences before installation begins(Petrova 2014: 1292). In support of this, Petrova (2014: 1292) introduces the so-called  “ENUF” framework: policymakers and developers engage local communities, never use NIMBY as „it is a pejorative term and an insufficient descriptor of motivations in the community“, understand different perceptions and processes, and facilitate long-term discussions in order to achieve acceptance. “ENUF” for that reason might provide a guideline to contribute to a fair and just planning process, claimed before by Friedl & Reichl (2016and Gross et al. (2007). Recommendations whence also address several stakeholders. Integrating selected experts (Fast 2013, Jones & Eiser 2010) and an access to specialist knowledge (Jones & Eiser 2010, Gross 2007, Walker et al. 2010, Hübner et al. 2014) may also enhance the acceptance towards local wind energy projects.
  
 ===iv) Other=== ===iv) Other===
  
-Finally, the subcategory “other” lists besides the recommendation to choose the location wisely (e.g. Spiess 2015, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Westernberg et al. 2015, Strazzeran et al. 2012, Hübner et al. 2013), measures that increase the community's attachment to the wind farm, such as a naming ceremony for increasing the acceptance (e.g. Fast 2013, Warren McFadyen 2010), and technical adjustments concerning the noise production of the rotors (e.g. McKenna 2016, Petrova 2014).+Finally, the subcategory “other” lists besides the recommendation to choose the location wisely (e.g. Spiess 2015, Guo et al. 2015, Hammami et al. 2016, Jones & Eiser 2010, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Westernberg et al. 2015, Strazzeran et al. 2012, Hübner et al. 2013), measures that increase the community's attachment to the wind farm, such as a naming ceremony for increasing the acceptance (e.g. Fast 2013, Warren McFadyen 2010), and technical adjustments concerning the noise production of the rotors (e.g. McKenna 2016, Petrova 2014).
  
 The incorporation of wind turbines into place-making activities, like naming ceremonies in order increase the local acceptance may succeed depending on the culture. Nevertheless, Warren & McFayden (2010) report that by locals naming a collection of turbine as “the three dancing ladies” the sense of ownership felt by the community was strengthened. Apparently, these ceremonies were historical traditional for Dutch windmills and in this way were adopted for modern technologies. Nowadays, this approach of increasing acceptance was even common in Sweden by giving names and gender to each new installed wind turbine (Warren & McFayden 2010). In Japan, residents who have contributed to a national wind-power fund were able to name wind turbines to the names of grandchildren or to marriages (Maruyama et al. 2007). The incorporation of wind turbines into place-making activities, like naming ceremonies in order increase the local acceptance may succeed depending on the culture. Nevertheless, Warren & McFayden (2010) report that by locals naming a collection of turbine as “the three dancing ladies” the sense of ownership felt by the community was strengthened. Apparently, these ceremonies were historical traditional for Dutch windmills and in this way were adopted for modern technologies. Nowadays, this approach of increasing acceptance was even common in Sweden by giving names and gender to each new installed wind turbine (Warren & McFayden 2010). In Japan, residents who have contributed to a national wind-power fund were able to name wind turbines to the names of grandchildren or to marriages (Maruyama et al. 2007).
  
-Other recommendations aim at compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats (Groth & Vogt 2014) or supporting community projects (Groth & Vogt 2014, Khorsandi 2015, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Hübner et al. 2013). Separate funds offered to the affected community may concur to community benefits (Khorsandi et al. 2015). These recommendations help to minimize negative perceptions. +Other recommendations aim at compensatory measures like creating dedicated wildlife habitats (Groth & Vogt 2014) or supporting community projects (Groth & Vogt 2014, Khorsandi 2015, Meyerhoff et al. 2010, Warren & McFadyen 2010, Hübner et al. 2013). Separate funds offered to the affected community may concur to community benefits (Khorsand et al. 2015). These recommendations help to minimize negative perceptions. 
  
-Nevertheless, the design of wind turbines is often seen as starting point to adjustments in order to foster acceptance. For the future development, experts suggest a power in the range 3–10 MW, with a tower height of 120–200 m and a rotor diameter of 120–180 m. For high wind speeds sites, turbines with high rated power and small rotor diameter are designed, whereas for low wind speed sites a smaller rated power and larger rotor diameters are needed (Mc Kenna et al. 2016). Especially for large wind power plants and generally the noise emissions, adjustments might contribute to meet the challenges of social acceptance (Mc Kenna et al. 2016). To meet arising concerns about health Hübner et al. (2014) recommends installing a permanent measuring station in order to monitor emissions from the wind turbines.+Nevertheless, the design of wind turbines is often seen as starting point to adjustments in order to foster acceptance. For the future development, experts suggest a power in the range 3–10 MW, with a tower height of 120–200 m and a rotor diameter of 120–180 m. For high wind speeds sites, turbines with high rated power and small rotor diameter are designed, whereas for low wind speed sites a smaller rated power and larger rotor diameters are needed (Mc Kenna et al. 2016). Especially for large wind power plants and generally the noise emissions, adjustments might contribute to meet the challenges of social acceptance (Mc Kenna et al. 2016). To meet arising concerns about health Hübner et al. (2014) recommend installing a permanent measuring station in order to monitor emissions from the wind turbines.
  
 All in all, the different recommendations show that several analysed methods in order to foster acceptance indeed have already been practiced in the field: some have proven effective, especially when it comes to local participation, inclusion of economic benefits and the „right way“ to spread information. Even if there are still some problems related to the application of general measures to distinct local wind energy projects, the literature review has shown that sometimes even minor measures and properties like engagement in open dialogues, sharing responsibilities and trusting one another help effectively to foster the social acceptance of wind energy. All in all, the different recommendations show that several analysed methods in order to foster acceptance indeed have already been practiced in the field: some have proven effective, especially when it comes to local participation, inclusion of economic benefits and the „right way“ to spread information. Even if there are still some problems related to the application of general measures to distinct local wind energy projects, the literature review has shown that sometimes even minor measures and properties like engagement in open dialogues, sharing responsibilities and trusting one another help effectively to foster the social acceptance of wind energy.
- 
 ===== IV. Conclusion ===== ===== IV. Conclusion =====
- 
-Jessica 
  
 Social-political movements often accompany promoting the development of wind energy in order to fulfil the energy policy driven goals of the energy transition and to contribute to defined climatic targets. The decentralisation of wind turbines also leads to the often-observed happening that proponents and opponents of wind energy draw on their diverging perceptions of wind energy plants.  Social-political movements often accompany promoting the development of wind energy in order to fulfil the energy policy driven goals of the energy transition and to contribute to defined climatic targets. The decentralisation of wind turbines also leads to the often-observed happening that proponents and opponents of wind energy draw on their diverging perceptions of wind energy plants. 
  
-Against this background, the objective of this synopsis was to determine which methods are undertaken to assess the social acceptance of wind turbines, to collect assumed factors that have influence on the attitude towards wind energy as well as to assemble different recommendations given throughout the reviewed literature.+Against this background, the objective of this synopsis was to determine which methods are undertaken to assess the social acceptance of wind turbines, to collect actual and perceived factors that have influence on the attitude towards wind energy as well as to assemble different recommendations given throughout the reviewed literature.
  
 Findings made clear that researchers focus indirectly on already published surveys in order compare cases on acceptance patterns, while on the other hand “in the field surveys” directly are used to cover the local attitude towards wind energy planning developments. Hence, the most common approaches in order to acquire data compromise literature reviews and questionnaires. Thereby, the question of acceptance is not only limited to single countries, but also carried out internationally, such as in the U.S. or in China. Findings made clear that researchers focus indirectly on already published surveys in order compare cases on acceptance patterns, while on the other hand “in the field surveys” directly are used to cover the local attitude towards wind energy planning developments. Hence, the most common approaches in order to acquire data compromise literature reviews and questionnaires. Thereby, the question of acceptance is not only limited to single countries, but also carried out internationally, such as in the U.S. or in China.
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 Concerning the factors that influence social acceptance, it is noticeable that the most reported concerns counter wind turbines deal with disparities in socio-economic, procedural as well as factors of perception, such as noise, environmental and health issues.  Concerning the factors that influence social acceptance, it is noticeable that the most reported concerns counter wind turbines deal with disparities in socio-economic, procedural as well as factors of perception, such as noise, environmental and health issues. 
  
-As a consequence, most of the stated recommendations to enhance the social acceptance apparently address aspects of the planning processes of wind turbines. Properties, such as the (open) access and cooperation in the planning process of wind energy projects as well as the fairness and open dialogs play major role in order to gain support for a project from the local community. Moreover, it was becoming clear that the perceived “fairness” also implies monetary compensation and/or involvement in the wind energy project, such as ownership models. Therefore, the participation process, on the one hand, plays an important role for local residents to accept planned wind turbines within their region, on the other hand, gaining direct benefits apart from the often-promoted “environmental-friendly” wind energy technology is also crucial.+As a consequence, most of the stated recommendations to enhance the social acceptance apparently address aspects of the planning processes of wind turbines. Properties, such as the (open) access and cooperation in the planning process of wind energy projects as well as the fairness and open dialogs play major role in order to gain support for a project from the local community. Moreover, it was becoming clear that the perceived “fairness” also implies monetary compensation and/or involvement in the wind energy project, such as ownership models. Therefore, the participation process, on the one hand, plays an important role for local residents to accept planned wind turbines within their region, on the other hand, gaining direct benefits apart from the often-promoted “environmental-friendly” wind energy technology is also crucial.
  
 Still, it cannot be ensured that proposed recommendations by academics are necessarily incorporated when it comes to local planning processes. There is consequently a need for future research to analyse a possible “science-practice gap”. However, it is to admit that there is no guarantee that the wind energy development is regarded complaisantly if all stated recommendations are complied. Values cannot be changed easily and since the overall consumption planning is often determined politically, the focal point has to lie on improving the factors that create the wind energy development acceptable for persons concerned. Therefore, this synopsis made a first overall contribution to shed light on what factors actually prove to be the most essential in forming people’s acceptance towards wind energy in order to improve future planning processes. Still, it cannot be ensured that proposed recommendations by academics are necessarily incorporated when it comes to local planning processes. There is consequently a need for future research to analyse a possible “science-practice gap”. However, it is to admit that there is no guarantee that the wind energy development is regarded complaisantly if all stated recommendations are complied. Values cannot be changed easily and since the overall consumption planning is often determined politically, the focal point has to lie on improving the factors that create the wind energy development acceptable for persons concerned. Therefore, this synopsis made a first overall contribution to shed light on what factors actually prove to be the most essential in forming people’s acceptance towards wind energy in order to improve future planning processes.
- 
  
 ===== Original Database ===== ===== Original Database =====
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   * van der Horst, D 2007, 'NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies', Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2705–2714.   * van der Horst, D 2007, 'NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies', Energy Policy, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2705–2714.
   * Walker, C, Baxter, J, Mason, S, Luginaah, I & Ouellette, D 2014, ‘Wind energy development and perceived real estate values in Ontario, Canada’, AIMS Energy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 424-442.   * Walker, C, Baxter, J, Mason, S, Luginaah, I & Ouellette, D 2014, ‘Wind energy development and perceived real estate values in Ontario, Canada’, AIMS Energy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 424-442.
 +  * Walker, G., Devine-Wright, P., Hunter, S., High, H., Evans, B., 2010. Trust and community: exploring the meanings, contexts and dynamics of community renewable energy. Energy Policy 38, pp. 2655–2663. 
   * Warren, CR, McFayden, M 2010, ‘Does community ownership affect public attitudes to wind energy? A case study from south-west Scotland’, Land Use Policy, vol.27, pp. 204-213.   * Warren, CR, McFayden, M 2010, ‘Does community ownership affect public attitudes to wind energy? A case study from south-west Scotland’, Land Use Policy, vol.27, pp. 204-213.
   * Westernberg V, Jacobsen, BJ, Lifran R 2015, ‚ Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance, Energy Research and Social Science, vol. 10, pp. 165-179.   * Westernberg V, Jacobsen, BJ, Lifran R 2015, ‚ Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance, Energy Research and Social Science, vol. 10, pp. 165-179.
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   * Zilles, J & Schwarz, C 2015, 'Bürgerproteste gegen Windkraft in Deutschland. Organisation und Handlungsstrategien', Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, no. 6, pp. 669–679.   * Zilles, J & Schwarz, C 2015, 'Bürgerproteste gegen Windkraft in Deutschland. Organisation und Handlungsstrategien', Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, no. 6, pp. 669–679.
   * Zoellner J, Schweizer-Ries, P, Wemheuer, C 2008, ‘Public acceptance of renewable energies: Results from case studies in Germany’, Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 4136-4141.   * Zoellner J, Schweizer-Ries, P, Wemheuer, C 2008, ‘Public acceptance of renewable energies: Results from case studies in Germany’, Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 4136-4141.
 +
literature_review.1477322837.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/10/24 17:27 by admin