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research:rural_areas [2016/11/05 13:50]
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research:rural_areas [2017/03/10 00:08] (current)
r.rodriguescamargo
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 ====== Rural areas ====== ====== Rural areas ======
  
-(edited by JW 26th August) +In the following abstracts the region Havelland-Fläming with the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming” and “Uebigau-Wahrenbrück”, in the region Lausitz-Spreewald, are illustrated in further detail. Here, the surveys about the acceptance of wind energy have taken place. Moreover, references to the local wind energy development are included.
- +
-In the following abstracts the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming”, region Havelland-Fläming, and “Uebigau-Wahrenbrück”, region Lausitz-Spreewald, are illustrated in further detail. Moreover, references to the local wind energy development are included.+
  
 ===== Havelland-Fläming: Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming ===== ===== Havelland-Fläming: Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming =====
  
-The change of the landscape by technogenic elements, like wind turbines and power lines, can lead to adverse perceptions towards the politically driven wind energy development (cf. Caporal & de Lucia 2015, Swofford & Slattery 2010 or Larsen et al. 2015). Already occupying the second place with regard to the total installed capacity in MW among the federal states of Germany in 2015 (DEWI 2015), it is becoming apparent that Brandenburg provides favorable installation conditions for implementing the turnaround in energy policy at federal state level. Due to the enforced development of renewable energy resources the crucial question arises: what happens to a region if the visual landscape changes (see Fig. 1)? :?: //Is that the only question? Sounds as if the visual impact is the only problem.// +The change of the landscape by technogenic elements, like wind turbines and power lines, can lead to adverse perceptions towards the politically driven wind energy development (cf. Caporal & de Lucia 2015, Swofford & Slattery 2010 or Larsen et al. 2015). Already occupying the second place with regard to the total installed capacity in MW among the federal states of Germany in 2015 (DEWI 2015), it is becoming apparent that Brandenburg provides favourable installation conditions for implementing the turnaround in energy policy at federal state level. Due to the enforced development of renewable energy resources the crucial questions arise: what happens to a region if the visual landscape changes, what consequences result from this and how do the inhabitants perceive those changes (see Fig. 1)? 
  
 <imgcaption image1|Wind energy facilities close to housings in Dahme/Mark (Photo: R. Camargo)> {{ ::research:wea_vor_hausern.jpg?430 |}}</imgcaption> <imgcaption image1|Wind energy facilities close to housings in Dahme/Mark (Photo: R. Camargo)> {{ ::research:wea_vor_hausern.jpg?430 |}}</imgcaption>
  
-Being strongly marked by wind turbines in the Havelland-Fläming region in Brandenburg, the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and also “Niederer Fläming” are notable study sites in order to analyze the social acceptance towards locally installed wind turbines. +Being strongly marked by wind turbines in the Havelland-Fläming region in Brandenburg, the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and also “Niederer Fläming” are notable study sites in order to analyse the social acceptance towards locally installed wind turbines. 
  
 Starting with six single wind energy facilities in 1998, in the year 2016, the municipality Dahme/Mark now exceeds more than 81 wind facilities that provide a capacity of 128 MW (Amt Dahme/Mark 2016). And this is not all as the current “Regional Plan Havelland-Fläming 2020” puts once more strong emphasis on the energy transition and stipulates the development of wind energy among others in these municipalities (RP H-F 2015).  Starting with six single wind energy facilities in 1998, in the year 2016, the municipality Dahme/Mark now exceeds more than 81 wind facilities that provide a capacity of 128 MW (Amt Dahme/Mark 2016). And this is not all as the current “Regional Plan Havelland-Fläming 2020” puts once more strong emphasis on the energy transition and stipulates the development of wind energy among others in these municipalities (RP H-F 2015). 
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 Against this background, the student’s project was initiated as a result of an inquiry of the “Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming” (engl., “regional planning association”) to conduct a survey about the local residents’ acceptance towards the wind energy development in the two areas “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming”. As early as 2005, a survey has been conducted in these two municipalities in order to analyse the residents’ attitude towards the local wind energy development. Consequently, this posed an incentive for a current survey with the aim to assess and analyse whether the social acceptance of wind turbines has changed over a 10-years period. While in 2005, findings made clear that positive as well as negative perspectives approximately outweighed the residents’ attitude towards wind energy facilities, however, in the wake of the increasing expansion of wind facilities in and around the municipalities, it was now to assume as one research hypothesis that the attitude has changed to the negative. Against this background, the student’s project was initiated as a result of an inquiry of the “Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming” (engl., “regional planning association”) to conduct a survey about the local residents’ acceptance towards the wind energy development in the two areas “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming”. As early as 2005, a survey has been conducted in these two municipalities in order to analyse the residents’ attitude towards the local wind energy development. Consequently, this posed an incentive for a current survey with the aim to assess and analyse whether the social acceptance of wind turbines has changed over a 10-years period. While in 2005, findings made clear that positive as well as negative perspectives approximately outweighed the residents’ attitude towards wind energy facilities, however, in the wake of the increasing expansion of wind facilities in and around the municipalities, it was now to assume as one research hypothesis that the attitude has changed to the negative.
  
-Moreover, the second evident question for the student’s project arose, if there are differences in residents’ perception in comparison to other municipalities in the region Havelland-Fläming, which differ in historical and structural characteristics. For example, the municipality “Lausitz-Spreewald” was and still is strongly influenced by coal mining activities, while the city Potsdam might provide fewer contact points with local wind turbines in sub-urban areas. In both areas, residents, consequently, might tend to be more open towards the local wind energy development in Brandenburg whereas residents living in the rural areas close to the wind turbines might argue to converse, like in Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming. These research questions and hypotheses thus represented the framework of the student project’s survey. +Moreover, the second evident question for the student’s project arose, if there are differences in residents’ perception in comparison to other municipalities in the region Havelland-Fläming, which differ in historical and structural characteristics. For example, the municipality “Lausitz-Spreewald” was and still is strongly influenced by coal mining activities, while the city of [[research:urban_area|Potsdam]] might provide fewer contact points with local wind turbines in sub-urban areas. In both areas, residents, consequently, might tend to be more open towards the local wind energy development in Brandenburg whereas residents living in the rural areas close to the wind turbines might argue to converse, like in Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming. These research questions and hypotheses thus represented the framework of the student project’s survey. 
  
-However, it turned out that the responding rate of the student’s survey in Lausitz-Spreewald with 21 returned questionnaires was rather low; therefore the received replies could only represent a general indicator of the resident’s perception in a region characterised by former coal mining activities in comparison to the municipalties Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the region Havelland-Fläming.  
  
 === Summary of the working hypotheses=== === Summary of the working hypotheses===
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 The following working hypotheses of the student’s study in Havelland-Fläming can be summed up as follows: The following working hypotheses of the student’s study in Havelland-Fläming can be summed up as follows:
  
-  * There is a change of perception towards wind energy facilities approximately to the negative in a 10-years period.+  * There is a change of perception towards wind energy facilities approximately to the negative in a 10-years period since in this time the wind energy development increased (cf. Amt Dahme/Mark 2016)
   * People living in the former coal mining region of Lausitz-Spreewald might approve wind energy facilities more often than in Havelland-Fläming. However, it turned out that the responding rate of the student’s survey in Lausitz-Spreewald with 21 returned questionnaires was rather low; therefore the received replies could only represent a general indicator of the resident’s perception in a region characterised by former coal mining activities in comparison to the municipalties Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the region Havelland-Fläming.    * People living in the former coal mining region of Lausitz-Spreewald might approve wind energy facilities more often than in Havelland-Fläming. However, it turned out that the responding rate of the student’s survey in Lausitz-Spreewald with 21 returned questionnaires was rather low; therefore the received replies could only represent a general indicator of the resident’s perception in a region characterised by former coal mining activities in comparison to the municipalties Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the region Havelland-Fläming. 
-  * People in urban areas presumably tend to be more open towards wind energy. 
  
-To further determine the influencing factors of the wind energy planning process on the resident’s attitude towards wind energy, the following secondary working hypotheses were formulated: +To further determine the influencing factors of the wind energy planning process on the resident’s attitude towards wind energy, the following secondary working hypotheses were formulated: 
- +
-  * The acceptance of wind energy is higher when people perceive that wind turbines do not destroy landscape. +
-  * With greater distance to the wind farms & higher density of wind turbines, the acceptance of wind energy increases (distance & density factor),  +
-  * With rising level of information, wind energy has a higher acceptance (information, participation), +
-  * The acceptance of wind energy increases with direct benefit from the renewable energy (economic factor).+
  
 +  * The acceptance of wind energy is higher when people perceive that wind turbines do not destroy landscape. The  [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|analysis of the literature]] showed that if wind parks are not planned with “spatial consciousness” (ibid.), the turbines are frequently perceived as intruders to the rural landscape and a symbol for the urban-technological sprawl (Jessup 2010; Cowell 2010; Zilles & Schwarz 2015) and are thus rejected and spur opposition to the wind energy development. The wish to keep the landscape as it is, respectively the disapproval with the installed turbines proved in several empirical studies on the indicators of social acceptance to be a very strong predictor of opposition to wind energy development (Zoellner et al. 2008; Wolsink 2007; Wolsink 2000; Johansson & Laike 2007).
 +  * With greater distance to the wind farms and higher density of wind turbines, the acceptance of wind energy increases (distance & density factor). The conducted [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]] showed that residents frequently wish for the wind development that it should be realized at a larger distance to residential areas (Meyerhoff, Ohl & Hartje 2010). However, there seem to be uncertainties as it has been found several times that there is no significant relation between the distance to the wind parks and the level of acceptance of wind energy development (e.g. Hübner 2013; Hübner & Pohl 2015; Groth & Vogt 2014; Petrova 2016).
 +  * With rising level of information, wind energy has a higher acceptance (information, participation). The background to this hypothesis is that the [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]] revealed that the better-informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptances they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016).
 +  * The acceptance of wind energy increases with direct benefit from the renewable energy (economic factor). It can generally be observed that the anticipated effect on local economy has the highest single effect on attitudes (Schweizer-Ries 2008), to the extent that it even improves the perception of landscape change (Bidwell 2013), according to the conducted [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]].
  
 ==== Regional and wind energy characteristics of “Havelland-Fläming” ==== ==== Regional and wind energy characteristics of “Havelland-Fläming” ====
  
-//Demographic characteristics//+//Demographic characteristics and development// 
 + 
 +The region Havelland-Fläming is located in Brandenburg, comprises around 6,800 km² and consists of the counties “Havelland”, “Potsdam-Mittelmark” and “Teltow-Fläming” as well as the independent towns (ger., “kreisfreien Städte”) “Potsdam” and “Brandenburg an der Havel” (RP H-F 2016a). It is notable, that Havelland-Fläming is the most populous region in Brandenburg, but is characterized by a declining population in the rural areas, hence, the municipalities Dahme/Mark as well as Niederer Fläming are effected by the demographic change similarly (RP H-F 2016b). Unfulfilled growth expectations of the 1990s of the last century offered development and construction possibilities that exceed the expected need until 2020 and the demographic development allows expecting a number of inhabitants of just 760,000 till 2020. An ageing population along with the demographic change for this region is expected all the same. Moreover, an increasing change of the preferred living conditions away from the „living in blockhouses“ to the „living in one and two family houses“ is notable (RP H-F 2015). 
 + 
 +Currently, Dahme/Mark covers 162 km² and has a population about 5,253 inhabitants while Niederer Fläming comprises 185 km² with 3,186 inhabitants (Landkreis Teltow-Fläming 2016). The size and structure of the settlements in the region show that these areas can be developed in towns in the future due to its empty sites and open spaces, therefore new designated areas for settlement are not considered as necessary outside of the settlements (RP H-F 2015). 
 + 
 +The <imgref image2> shows the location of the selected municipalities as well as the density of wind turbines in Brandenburg. The density map was based on data from the Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016), whereas the number of wind turbines installed and under construction in each municipality was divided by each municipality's area (km²).  
  
-The region Havelland-Fläming is located in Brandenburg, compromises around 6,800 km² and consists of the counties “Havelland”, “Potsdam-Mittelmark” and “Teltow-Fläming” as well as the independent towns (ger., “kreisfreien Städte”) “Potsdam” and “Brandenburg an der Havel” (RP H-F 2016a). It is notable, that Havelland-Fläming is the most populous region in Brandenburg, but is characterized by a declining population in the rural areas, hence, the municipalities Dahme/Mark as well as Niederer Fläming are effected by the demographic change similarly (RP H-F 2016b). Currently, Dahme/Mark covers 162 km² and has a population about 5,253 inhabitants while Niedere Fläming compromises 185 km² with 3,186 inhabitants (Landkreis Teltow-Fläming 2016). In <imgref image2the location of the municipalities Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the map of density of wind turbines in Brandenburg.+<imgcaption image2|Map of density of wind turbines in Brandenburg and selected municipalities. Data source: Landwirtschaftsund Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BBconcerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)> {{ :research:density_choropleth_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:verortung_dm_und_nf.png |}}</imgcaption> 
 +[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/builder/6e3ceeb5-035f-43dd-853b-45c50f83a161/embed|Click here for the interactive map]]
  
-<imgcaption image2|Map of density of wind turbines in Brandenburg and selected municipalities> {{ :research:density_choropleth_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:verortung_dm_und_nf.png |}}</imgcaption> +//Landscape characteristics//
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]]+
  
 +The region Havelland-Fläming is located in the North German Plain and is characterized by the vast valley areas of the both the region to crossing glacial valleys (Berliner and Glogau-Baruther glacial valley). It also belongs to the most important cultural landscapes of the central European history: The middle of the electorate and the Kingdom of Prussia developed from a poor border mark. Havelland-Fläming can be distinguished between four landscape units. The present landscape protection encloses up to very vast parts of the region as for example the 136 km2 big landscape protection area “Westhavelland’ (RP H-F 2015).
 +
 +The regional plan 2020 therefore formulates the objective to preserve hardly altered landscape elements, which are not fragmented and spoiled, such as valley sceneries and fens. These sensitive areas also include existing landscape protection areas as well as other areas with a size up to 700 km2 that comprise nearly 40 % of the whole region (RP H-F 2015).
  
 //Wind energy development// //Wind energy development//
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 Concerning the wind energy development, in the region Havelland-Fläming there are currently 683 wind energy facilities with a capacity of 1,187 MW (RP H-F 2016c). In the municipality Dahme/Mark there are 50 wind facilities located and 10 are planned. In Niederer Fläming 57 wind facilities exist and three more are planned (RPHV 2016) (see <imgref image3>). Concerning the wind energy development, in the region Havelland-Fläming there are currently 683 wind energy facilities with a capacity of 1,187 MW (RP H-F 2016c). In the municipality Dahme/Mark there are 50 wind facilities located and 10 are planned. In Niederer Fläming 57 wind facilities exist and three more are planned (RPHV 2016) (see <imgref image3>).
  
-<imgcaption image3|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Niederer Fläming and Dahme/Mark (2016)> {{ :research:density_zoom2_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:rural_areas:fig._1_hf.png |}}</imgcaption> +<imgcaption image3|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Niederer Fläming and Dahme/Mark. Data source: Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)> {{ :research:density_zoom2_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:rural_areas:fig._1_hf.png |}}</imgcaption> 
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]] +[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/viz/85dc0ba4-33ed-4af8-bfcf-051e53f2364f/public_map|Click here for the interactive map]]
- +
  
  
 //Designated areas for wind energy// //Designated areas for wind energy//
    
-Within the “Regional Plan Havelland-Fläming 2020”, which was approved in June 2015, the usage of wind energy is stipulated and the plan poses suitable areas for wind turbines, including potential areas for the relocation of wind turbines as well as designated areas (ger., “Windeignungsgebiete”) for wind energy. In total, the plan prescribes 24 designated areas for wind turbines in Havelland-Fläming (2,2 % of the region); approximately four of those are close or closer than 3.000 m to the municipalities Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming (cf. designated areas: “WEG 39 Ilmersdorfer Holz”, “WEG 40 Dahme”, “WEG 36 Sernower Heide”, “WEG 37 Schlenzer-Wahlsdorfer Heide”). The overall distance between the designated areas for wind turbines is 5.000 m with regard to the landscape’s aesthetics (RP-HF 2015). All in all, the designated areas compromise 4 % of the total areas that are suitable for the usage of wind energy, but cannot be used due to e.g. the prescribed distances of importance for bird protection (ger., „tierökologische Abstandskriterien“), visual axes or forest functions etc. (cf. RP-HF 2015: 1002) (see <imgref image4>).+Within the “Regional Plan Havelland-Fläming 2020”, which was approved in June 2015, the usage of wind energy is stipulated and the plan poses suitable areas for wind turbines, including potential areas for the location of wind turbines as well as designated areas (ger., “Windeignungsgebiete”) for wind energy. In total, the plan prescribes 24 designated areas for wind turbines in Havelland-Fläming (2,2 % of the region); approximately four of those are close or closer than 3.000 m to the municipalities Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming (cf. designated areas: “WEG 39 Ilmersdorfer Holz”, “WEG 40 Dahme”, “WEG 36 Sernower Heide”, “WEG 37 Schlenzer-Wahlsdorfer Heide”). The overall distance between the designated areas for wind turbines is 5.000 m in order to preserve the aesthetics of the landscape (RP-HF 2015). All in all, the designated areas compromise 4 % of the total areas that are suitable for the usage of wind energy, other areas cannot be used due to e.g. the prescribed distances of importance for bird protection (ger., „tierökologische Abstandskriterien“), visual axes or forest functions etc. (cf. RP-HF 2015: 1002)(see <imgref image4>). A minimum distance of 1.000 m of wind farms on local settlements is prescribed in the environmental report of the regional plan, while a distance of 600 m is required on single settlements (ger., “einzelne Siedlungsplätze”) (RP H-F 2015: 974). However, the regional plan 2020 states that the achievement of the aim of the energy strategy in 2030 of the land Brandenburg is not sufficient due to the fact that with the definitions of the regional plan the use of wind energy in the region is integrated in substantially manner (RP H-F 2015).
  
-A minimum distance of 1.000 m of wind farms on local settlements is prescribed in the environmental report of the regional plan, while a distance of 600 m is required on single settlements (ger., “einzelne Siedlungsplätze”) (RP H-F 2015: 974).+Within the scope of the strategic environmental assessment (SUP) a check of the compatibility of the regional plan and the determine wind energy development with the habitat protection areas (FFH-Gebietehas taken place. The results show that interferences at the level of the regional plan could be excluded for all Natura-2000 areas. Furthermore it was found that the regional plan causes probably no considerable negative environmental impact in the region Havelland-Fläming (RP H-F 2015).
  
 <imgcaption image4|Relevant designated areas for wind energy faculties („WEG“) in Niederer Fläming (left) and Dahme/Mark (right) (extract of the regional plan 2020) (RP-HF 2015)> {{ :research:rural_areas:fig._2_weg_dm_nf.png?610 |}}</imgcaption> <imgcaption image4|Relevant designated areas for wind energy faculties („WEG“) in Niederer Fläming (left) and Dahme/Mark (right) (extract of the regional plan 2020) (RP-HF 2015)> {{ :research:rural_areas:fig._2_weg_dm_nf.png?610 |}}</imgcaption>
 +
 +
 +//Acceptance of wind energy//
 +
 +In the year 2005, a survey on the acceptance of wind energy in the Havelland-Fläming region has taken place, being a component of an investigation about the fair exchange of technologies and experiences, a project called „Regional Wind Technology And Knowledge Transfer Strategies“ (WindTechKnow). The [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/lib/exe/fetch.php?media=einstellungen_und_meinungen_zur_windenergie_windtechknow_2005_.pdf|survey]] was conceived with reference to the designated areas for wind energy, as they were determined in the regional plan in the year 2005. In the course of this, the locations for the survey were selected at a distance of up to approx. 3000 m of the designated areas for wind energy. The chosen citizens received between May and July 2005 a questionnaire with a total of 24 questions and about 60 % of the distributed questionnaires could be collected again (WindTechKnow 2005). 
 +
 +The main results of this survey showed that generally a majority of the interviewees supported the use of renewable energy resources. The highest approval found the use of solar energy. The general attitude towards wind energy was strongly polarised since supportive as well as opponent positions were stated equally. Exemplarily, one point stated was that the residents felt insufficiently and too late informed about local wind energy projects. Moreover, disadvantages of the use of wind energy, like the destruction of the landscape, were stated more often than the possible advantages. However, the majority of the interviewees did not describe the first reactions to wind projects as negative, but according to the prevailing opinion wind farms should comprise fewer facilities and should be installed in far distances from the settlements. Nevertheless, economic aspects were seen as important to the residents with regard to the question if local wind energy projects were perceived as reasonable (WindTechKnow 2005).
 +
 +These results provided a useful opportunity for this repetition study with the aim to find out whether the attitude of the local residents had changed within the last years, although there was a development of wind energy facilities and whether a habitation effect to the wind turbines can be detected.
 +
 +//Citizen initiatives//
 +
 +The wind energy development in Havelland-Fläming, fostered by the regional plan 2020, has given rise to citizen initiatives; the hub height of 200 m of the turbines being one point of criticism. According to the PNN (2015) the heights of the new wind turbines were considered to be visible far away from the settlements and the citizen initiative “Waldkleeblatt” pointed out that the fragmentation of the woodlands of Brandenburg as well as the wind turbines threat’s to species conservation would impact the landscape. Other concerns, such as fears for the prestige for the Recura medical centres in Beelitz due to locally installed wind turbines in Havelland-Fläming, were discussed and made loud in the media. Besides, there is massive opposition from the Beelitzer city hall (PNN 2015). For instance, the inhabitants in Dahme also promote headwind, feeling misunderstood in the planning process. The initiative is called „Headwind from Gebersdorf and the surrounding of Dahme – pro nature“ and stands for an energy transition that pays respects to human interests as well as to interests of conservation. One argument is the distances and the location of the installed turbines to the villages as the siting of wind energy in forests and closer than 2 km to the settlements is seen critically (MAZ 2014).
 +
 +These examples show that the development of wind energy was and possibly is obviously accompanied by doubts and criticism in the population; nevertheless voices are expressed only individually and the question to what extent a majority in the population supports or defeats wind energy in the region Havelland-Fläming was not analysed since the survey in 2005.
 +
 =====Uebigau-Wahrenbrück ===== =====Uebigau-Wahrenbrück =====
  
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 Today the municipality already has 32 installed wind turbines (see <imgref image5>) and further there is an ongoing approval process for another 14 wind turbines and another 3 are in a construction process. These wind turbines are mostly situated in the two wind parks of the municipality (BKG 2016). Today the municipality already has 32 installed wind turbines (see <imgref image5>) and further there is an ongoing approval process for another 14 wind turbines and another 3 are in a construction process. These wind turbines are mostly situated in the two wind parks of the municipality (BKG 2016).
      
-<imgcaption image5|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2016)>{{ :research:density_zoom3_plan_copy.jpg |}}</imgcaption> +<imgcaption image5|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. Data source: Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)>{{ :research:density_zoom3_plan_copy.jpg |}}</imgcaption> 
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]]+[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/viz/85dc0ba4-33ed-4af8-bfcf-051e53f2364f/public_map|Click here for the interactive map]]
  
 Despite the current increase of wind turbines, the long-time development of wind energy in the region is still uncertain, however, the climate protection concept of Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2013) provides several scenarios about the potential future development of wind energy (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013).  Despite the current increase of wind turbines, the long-time development of wind energy in the region is still uncertain, however, the climate protection concept of Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2013) provides several scenarios about the potential future development of wind energy (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). 
 All these scenarios are based on the year 2010 data and estimate the technical and spatial development potentials for the renewable energy production in the year 2030. The predicted increase ranges from 'no significant increase’ up to nearly a doubling of the wind energy capacity.  The ‘ambitious scenario’ states that an increase up to 226 GWh would be possible (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). All these scenarios are based on the year 2010 data and estimate the technical and spatial development potentials for the renewable energy production in the year 2030. The predicted increase ranges from 'no significant increase’ up to nearly a doubling of the wind energy capacity.  The ‘ambitious scenario’ states that an increase up to 226 GWh would be possible (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013).
  
-Taking the increase of the wind energy in the last years and the possible future developments  into account it can be said that wind energy is a crucial topic within Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. It is worth noting that in the climate protection concept of the municipality it is stated that the future  development of wind energy in the region is not only depending on the spatial and technical possibilities, but also on public acceptance as this development has to be weighted against other public interests (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). This  dependency of wind energy development on social acceptance once more shows the relevance of the debate about social acceptance and further this research.  +Taking the increase of the wind energy in the last years and the possible future developments  into account it can be said that wind energy is a crucial topic within Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. It is worth noting that in the climate protection concept of the municipality it is stated that the future  development of wind energy in the region is not only depending on the spatial and technical possibilities, but also on public acceptance as this development has to be weighted against other public interests (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). This  dependency of wind energy development on social acceptance once more shows the relevance of the debate about social acceptance and further this research.
-===== References ====+
  
 +The idea of selecting the municipality Uebigau-Wahrenbrück was an attempt of identifying relevant factors behind possible differences in social acceptance of wind energy between Havelland-Fläming and Lausitz-Spreewald. The comparison was thought meaningful once Uebigau-Wahrenbrück shows interesting characteristics related to energy production.
  
 +The municipality takes part in a development of a Regional Energy Concept. Lausitz-Spreewald is a centre of renewable energy production in particular from wind and solar source, however for two centuries brown coal production was a fundamental activity for the whole region.
  
-Amt Dahme/Mark2016, Bürgerbefragung Windenergie, Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from https://www.dahme.de/news/1/332081/nachrichten/bürgerbefragung-windenergie.html (Accessed on 06/15/2016). +Furthermorethe administration of the municipality Uebigau-Wahrenbrück is committed to different green initiatives (e.g. conversion of energy productionclimate management plan)The municipality participated in a climate protection projectwhich ended in 2013, supported by the Federal Ministry for the EnvironmentNature ConservationBuilding and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). Moreoverthe administration supports wind energy developmentfor instancenew wind farms have been planned within/or at the borders of the municipalityhoweverclose to settlements.  
- +===== References ====
-BaxmannM., 2004, Vom "Pfützenland" zum Energiebezirk : die Geschichte der Industrialisierung in der Lausitz. Verlag der Kunst, Dresden. +
- +
-Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2013)‘Das Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier‘Retrieved May 272016 from http://www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/themen/brandenburg/wirtschaft-und-tourismus/das-lausitzer-braunkohlerevier +
- +
-Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG), 2016, ‘Metaver’, Retrieved Mai 25, 2016 from http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadraons/http://www.metaver.de/kartendienste;jsessionid=68CD5DE9AE71793DC679F867BCA61D34?wms_url=http%3A%2F%2Fluaplims01.brandenburg.de%2FArcGIS%2Fservices%2FINSPIRE%2Fwka%2FMapServer%2FWMSServer%3FREQU-EST%3DGetCapabilities%26SERVICE%3DWMS&ID=http%3A%2F%2Fmetaver.de%2Figc_bb%2Flfu%2345C506E5-3E9D-4DE2-9073-C3DB636CE7CF +
- +
-CaporaleD., De Lucia, C., 2015, Social acceptance of on-shore wind energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy)Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52 (2015) 1378–1390  +
- +
-DEWI (UL International GmbH) (Eds.)2015. Aufstellungszahlen für das Jahr 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2016, from http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/statistics/Infoblatt_2015_Dezember.pdf +
- +
-Landkreis Teltow-Fläming, 2016, Niederer Fläming. Retrieved on 05/31/16 from http://www.teltow-flaeming.de/de/landkreis/staedte-und-gemeinden/niederer-flaeming.php  +
- +
-Larsen, S., Hansen, A., Lyhne, I., Aaen, S., Ritter, E.,  Nielsen, H., 2015, Social Impact Assessment in Europe: A Study of Social Impacts in Three Danish CasesJournal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management Vol. 17No4 (December 2015) 1550038 +
- +
-Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming (RPHV), 2016, Windenergieanalagen in der Region, Retrieved on 05.31.16 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  +
- +
- Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Lausitz-Spreewald, 2016, ‘Sachlicher Teilregionalplan „Windenergienutzung"‘, Retrieved May 25, 2016 from https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=45ea9d8077d64f689f14dd4f243c4b23&extent=13.5118,51.6886,14.3708,51.9928  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming, 2016a, Verwaltungsgliederung, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 fromhttp: www.havelland-flaeming.de/verwaltungsgliederung.html  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016b, Bevölkerung. Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/bevoelkerung.html  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016c, Windenergieanlagen in der Region, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  +
- +
-RP-HF (Regionalen Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2015, Regionalplan „Havelland-Fläming 2020“ +
- +
-Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2013, ‘Integriertes Klimaschutzkonzept für die Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück‘, Retrieved Mai 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/2014_01_10_iksk_uewa.pdf  +
- +
-Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2014, ’Gemeinsam leben in Uebigau-Wahnrebrück’, Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/79dba3bf06be747b48f89068512514be_33076_ib_uebigau_wahrenbrueck_zur_freigabe.pdf+
  
-Swofford, J., Slattery, M., 2010, Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making, Energy Policy 38 (2010) 2508–2519+  * Amt Dahme/Mark, 2016, Bürgerbefragung Windenergie, Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from https://www.dahme.de/news/1/332081/nachrichten/bürgerbefragung-windenergie.html (Accessed on 06/15/2016). 
 +  * Baxmann, M., 2004, Vom "Pfützenland" zum Energiebezirk : die Geschichte der Industrialisierung in der Lausitz. Verlag der Kunst, Dresden. 
 +  * Bidwell, D 2013, 'The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy', Energy Policy, vol. 58, pp. 189–199 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2013), ‘Das Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier‘, Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/themen/brandenburg/wirtschaft-und-tourismus/das-lausitzer-braunkohlerevier 
 +  * Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG), 2016, ‘Metaver’, Retrieved Mai 25, 2016 from http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadraons/http://www.metaver.de/kartendienste;jsessionid=68CD5DE9AE71793DC679F867BCA61D34?wms_url=http%3A%2F%2Fluaplims01.brandenburg.de%2FArcGIS%2Fservices%2FINSPIRE%2Fwka%2FMapServer%2FWMSServer%3FREQU-EST%3DGetCapabilities%26SERVICE%3DWMS&ID=http%3A%2F%2Fmetaver.de%2Figc_bb%2Flfu%2345C506E5-3E9D-4DE2-9073-C3DB636CE7CF 
 +  * Bush, D & Hoagland, P 2016b, 'Public opinion and the environmental, economic and aesthetic impacts of offshore wind', Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 120, pp. 70–79 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Caporale, D., De Lucia, C., 2015, Social acceptance of on-shore wind energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy), Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52 (2015) 1378–1390  
 +  * Cowell, R 2010, 'Wind power, landscape and strategic, spatial planning—The construction of ‘acceptable locations’ in Wales', Land Use Policy, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 222–232 [31 August 2016]. 
 +  * DEWI (UL International GmbH) (Eds.), 2015. Aufstellungszahlen für das Jahr 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2016, from http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/statistics/Infoblatt_2015_Dezember.pdf 
 +  * Enevoldsen, P & Sovacool, BK 2016, 'Examining the social acceptance of wind energy. Practical guidelines for onshore wind project development in France', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 53, pp. 178–184 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Firestone, J, Kempton, W, Lilley, MB & Samoteskul, K 2012, 'Public acceptance of offshore wind power across regions and through time', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 1369–1386. 
 +  * Hübner, G & Löffler, E 2013, 'Wirkungen von Windkraftanlagen auf Anwohner in der Schweiz: Einflussfaktoren und Empfehlungen', vol. 2013. 
 +  * Hübner, G & Pohl, J 2015, 'Mehr Abstand - mehr Akzeptanz? Ein umweltpsychologischer Studienvergleich', Fachagentur Wind an Land [26 August 2016]. 
 +  * Jessup, B 2010, 'Plural and hybrid environmental values. A discourse analysis of the wind energy conflict in Australia and the United Kingdom', Environmental Politics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–44 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Landkreis Teltow-Fläming, 2016, Niederer Fläming. Retrieved on 05/31/16 from http://www.teltow-flaeming.de/de/landkreis/staedte-und-gemeinden/niederer-flaeming.php  
 +  * Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016, Windkraftanlagen des Landes Brandenburg. Retrieved on 07/10/16 from http://www.metaver.de/search/dls/#?serviceId=F92A0F18-7A1E-44E2-9F59-98968259F8F8&datasetId=45C506E5-3E9D-4DE2-9073-C3DB636CE7CF 
 +  * Johansson, M & Laike, T 2007, 'Intention to respond to local wind turbines. The role of attitudes and visual perception', Wind Energy, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 435–451 [31 August 2016]. 
 +  * Larsen, S., Hansen, A., Lyhne, I., Aaen, S., Ritter, E.,  Nielsen, H., 2015, Social Impact Assessment in Europe: A Study of Social Impacts in Three Danish Cases, Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management Vol. 17, No. 4 (December 2015) 1550038 
 +  * MAZ, 2014, Kampf gegen Windräder.URL: http://www.maz-online.de/Lokales/Teltow-Flaeming/Buergerinitiative-und-Waehlergruppe-Landleben-Dahme-im-Kampf-gegen-Windenergie (Accessed 12/17/2016). 
 +  * Meyerhoff, J, Ohl, C & Hartje, V 2010, 'Landscape externalities from onshore wind power', Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 82–92 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Petrova, MA 2016, 'From NIMBY to acceptance: Toward a novel framework - VESPA - For organizing and interpreting community concerns', Renewable Energy, vol. 86, pp. 1280–1294 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * PNN, 2015, 24 umstrittene Windeignungsgebiete: Investoren wollen Sturm ernten . URL: http://www.pnn.de/pm/1000217/ (Accessed 12/17/2016). 
 +  * Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming (RPHV), 2016, Windenergieanalagen in der Region, Retrieved on 05.31.16 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  
 +  *  Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Lausitz-Spreewald, 2016, ‘Sachlicher Teilregionalplan „Windenergienutzung"‘, Retrieved May 25, 2016 from https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=45ea9d8077d64f689f14dd4f243c4b23&extent=13.5118,51.6886,14.3708,51.9928  
 +  * RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming, 2016a, Verwaltungsgliederung, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 fromhttp: www.havelland-flaeming.de/verwaltungsgliederung.html  
 +  * RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016b, Bevölkerung. Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/bevoelkerung.html  
 +  * RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016c, Windenergieanlagen in der Region, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  
 +  * RP-HF (Regionalen Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2015, Regionalplan „Havelland-Fläming 2020“ 
 +  * Schweizer-Ries, P 2008, ‘Energy sustainable communities: Environmental psychological investigations’, Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 4126-4135. 
 +  * Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2013, ‘Integriertes Klimaschutzkonzept für die Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück‘, Retrieved Mai 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/2014_01_10_iksk_uewa.pdf  
 +  * Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2014, ’Gemeinsam leben in Uebigau-Wahnrebrück’, Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/79dba3bf06be747b48f89068512514be_33076_ib_uebigau_wahrenbrueck_zur_freigabe.pdf 
 +  * Swofford, J., Slattery, M., 2010, Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making, Energy Policy 38 (2010) 2508–2519 
 +  * Wolsink, M 2000, 'Wind power and the NIMBY-myth. Institutional capacity and the limited significance of public support', Renewable Energy, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 49–64. 
 +  * Zilles, J & Schwarz, C 2015, 'Bürgerproteste gegen Windkraft in Deutschland. Organisation und Handlungsstrategien', Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, no. 6, pp. 669–679. 
 +  * Zoellner J, Schweizer-Ries, P, Wemheuer, C 2008, ‘Public acceptance of renewable energies: Results from case studies in Germany’, Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 4136-4141.
research/rural_areas.1478350257.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/11/05 13:50 by admin