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research:rural_areas [2016/12/18 12:08]
j.weber
research:rural_areas [2017/03/10 00:08] (current)
r.rodriguescamargo
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 ====== Rural areas ====== ====== Rural areas ======
- 
-(edited by JW 18.12.16) 
  
 In the following abstracts the region Havelland-Fläming with the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming” and “Uebigau-Wahrenbrück”, in the region Lausitz-Spreewald, are illustrated in further detail. Here, the surveys about the acceptance of wind energy have taken place. Moreover, references to the local wind energy development are included. In the following abstracts the region Havelland-Fläming with the municipalities “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming” and “Uebigau-Wahrenbrück”, in the region Lausitz-Spreewald, are illustrated in further detail. Here, the surveys about the acceptance of wind energy have taken place. Moreover, references to the local wind energy development are included.
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 ===== Havelland-Fläming: Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming ===== ===== Havelland-Fläming: Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming =====
  
-The change of the landscape by technogenic elements, like wind turbines and power lines, can lead to adverse perceptions towards the politically driven wind energy development (cf. Caporal & de Lucia 2015, Swofford & Slattery 2010 or Larsen et al. 2015). Already occupying the second place with regard to the total installed capacity in MW among the federal states of Germany in 2015 (DEWI 2015), it is becoming apparent that Brandenburg provides favourable installation conditions for implementing the turnaround in energy policy at federal state level. Due to the enforced development of renewable energy resources the crucial questions arise: what happens to a region if the visual landscape changes, what consequences result from this and how do the inhabitants perceive those changes(see Fig. 1)? +The change of the landscape by technogenic elements, like wind turbines and power lines, can lead to adverse perceptions towards the politically driven wind energy development (cf. Caporal & de Lucia 2015, Swofford & Slattery 2010 or Larsen et al. 2015). Already occupying the second place with regard to the total installed capacity in MW among the federal states of Germany in 2015 (DEWI 2015), it is becoming apparent that Brandenburg provides favourable installation conditions for implementing the turnaround in energy policy at federal state level. Due to the enforced development of renewable energy resources the crucial questions arise: what happens to a region if the visual landscape changes, what consequences result from this and how do the inhabitants perceive those changes (see Fig. 1)? 
  
 <imgcaption image1|Wind energy facilities close to housings in Dahme/Mark (Photo: R. Camargo)> {{ ::research:wea_vor_hausern.jpg?430 |}}</imgcaption> <imgcaption image1|Wind energy facilities close to housings in Dahme/Mark (Photo: R. Camargo)> {{ ::research:wea_vor_hausern.jpg?430 |}}</imgcaption>
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 Against this background, the student’s project was initiated as a result of an inquiry of the “Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming” (engl., “regional planning association”) to conduct a survey about the local residents’ acceptance towards the wind energy development in the two areas “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming”. As early as 2005, a survey has been conducted in these two municipalities in order to analyse the residents’ attitude towards the local wind energy development. Consequently, this posed an incentive for a current survey with the aim to assess and analyse whether the social acceptance of wind turbines has changed over a 10-years period. While in 2005, findings made clear that positive as well as negative perspectives approximately outweighed the residents’ attitude towards wind energy facilities, however, in the wake of the increasing expansion of wind facilities in and around the municipalities, it was now to assume as one research hypothesis that the attitude has changed to the negative. Against this background, the student’s project was initiated as a result of an inquiry of the “Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming” (engl., “regional planning association”) to conduct a survey about the local residents’ acceptance towards the wind energy development in the two areas “Dahme/Mark” and “Niederer Fläming”. As early as 2005, a survey has been conducted in these two municipalities in order to analyse the residents’ attitude towards the local wind energy development. Consequently, this posed an incentive for a current survey with the aim to assess and analyse whether the social acceptance of wind turbines has changed over a 10-years period. While in 2005, findings made clear that positive as well as negative perspectives approximately outweighed the residents’ attitude towards wind energy facilities, however, in the wake of the increasing expansion of wind facilities in and around the municipalities, it was now to assume as one research hypothesis that the attitude has changed to the negative.
  
-Moreover, the second evident question for the student’s project arose, if there are differences in residents’ perception in comparison to other municipalities in the region Havelland-Fläming, which differ in historical and structural characteristics. For example, the municipality “Lausitz-Spreewald” was and still is strongly influenced by coal mining activities, while the city Potsdam might provide fewer contact points with local wind turbines in sub-urban areas. In both areas, residents, consequently, might tend to be more open towards the local wind energy development in Brandenburg whereas residents living in the rural areas close to the wind turbines might argue to converse, like in Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming. These research questions and hypotheses thus represented the framework of the student project’s survey. +Moreover, the second evident question for the student’s project arose, if there are differences in residents’ perception in comparison to other municipalities in the region Havelland-Fläming, which differ in historical and structural characteristics. For example, the municipality “Lausitz-Spreewald” was and still is strongly influenced by coal mining activities, while the city of [[research:urban_area|Potsdam]] might provide fewer contact points with local wind turbines in sub-urban areas. In both areas, residents, consequently, might tend to be more open towards the local wind energy development in Brandenburg whereas residents living in the rural areas close to the wind turbines might argue to converse, like in Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming. These research questions and hypotheses thus represented the framework of the student project’s survey. 
  
  
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   * There is a change of perception towards wind energy facilities approximately to the negative in a 10-years period since in this time the wind energy development increased (cf. Amt Dahme/Mark 2016).    * There is a change of perception towards wind energy facilities approximately to the negative in a 10-years period since in this time the wind energy development increased (cf. Amt Dahme/Mark 2016). 
   * People living in the former coal mining region of Lausitz-Spreewald might approve wind energy facilities more often than in Havelland-Fläming. However, it turned out that the responding rate of the student’s survey in Lausitz-Spreewald with 21 returned questionnaires was rather low; therefore the received replies could only represent a general indicator of the resident’s perception in a region characterised by former coal mining activities in comparison to the municipalties Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the region Havelland-Fläming.    * People living in the former coal mining region of Lausitz-Spreewald might approve wind energy facilities more often than in Havelland-Fläming. However, it turned out that the responding rate of the student’s survey in Lausitz-Spreewald with 21 returned questionnaires was rather low; therefore the received replies could only represent a general indicator of the resident’s perception in a region characterised by former coal mining activities in comparison to the municipalties Dahme/Mark and Niederer Fläming in the region Havelland-Fläming. 
-  * People in urban areas presumably tend to be more open towards wind energy. City dwellers might provide fewer contact points with local wind turbines in sub-urban areas (cf. Khorsand et al. 2015). They may only benefit from the generated “green” electricity, while possible impacts of wind energy, like changes in the aesthetics of the landscape and possible effects on wildlife, might affect more intensely people living close to the turbines, installed in rural areas ([[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=research:comparison:case_study_hypothesis|Click here for the comparison of the rural and urban area results]]). 
  
 To further determine the influencing factors of the wind energy planning process on the resident’s attitude towards wind energy, the following secondary working hypotheses were formulated:  To further determine the influencing factors of the wind energy planning process on the resident’s attitude towards wind energy, the following secondary working hypotheses were formulated: 
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   * With rising level of information, wind energy has a higher acceptance (information, participation). The background to this hypothesis is that the [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]] revealed that the better-informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptances they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016).   * With rising level of information, wind energy has a higher acceptance (information, participation). The background to this hypothesis is that the [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]] revealed that the better-informed people were previously about impacts of the wind energy development, the more acceptances they showed for the project (Bush & Hoagland 2016; Jobert, Laborgne & Mimler 2007; Enevoldsen & Sovacool 2016). An effect that proved to be even stronger over time, when people had learned about the positive impacts of wind energy and were able to dismiss previously assumed but unfounded concerns (Firestone et al. 2012; Petrova 2016).
   * The acceptance of wind energy increases with direct benefit from the renewable energy (economic factor). It can generally be observed that the anticipated effect on local economy has the highest single effect on attitudes (Schweizer-Ries 2008), to the extent that it even improves the perception of landscape change (Bidwell 2013), according to the conducted [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]].   * The acceptance of wind energy increases with direct benefit from the renewable energy (economic factor). It can generally be observed that the anticipated effect on local economy has the highest single effect on attitudes (Schweizer-Ries 2008), to the extent that it even improves the perception of landscape change (Bidwell 2013), according to the conducted [[http://lehre.umweltpruefung.tu-berlin.de/mapj2016/doku.php?id=literature_review|literature review]].
- 
  
 ==== Regional and wind energy characteristics of “Havelland-Fläming” ==== ==== Regional and wind energy characteristics of “Havelland-Fläming” ====
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 The region Havelland-Fläming is located in Brandenburg, comprises around 6,800 km² and consists of the counties “Havelland”, “Potsdam-Mittelmark” and “Teltow-Fläming” as well as the independent towns (ger., “kreisfreien Städte”) “Potsdam” and “Brandenburg an der Havel” (RP H-F 2016a). It is notable, that Havelland-Fläming is the most populous region in Brandenburg, but is characterized by a declining population in the rural areas, hence, the municipalities Dahme/Mark as well as Niederer Fläming are effected by the demographic change similarly (RP H-F 2016b). Unfulfilled growth expectations of the 1990s of the last century offered development and construction possibilities that exceed the expected need until 2020 and the demographic development allows expecting a number of inhabitants of just 760,000 till 2020. An ageing population along with the demographic change for this region is expected all the same. Moreover, an increasing change of the preferred living conditions away from the „living in blockhouses“ to the „living in one and two family houses“ is notable (RP H-F 2015). The region Havelland-Fläming is located in Brandenburg, comprises around 6,800 km² and consists of the counties “Havelland”, “Potsdam-Mittelmark” and “Teltow-Fläming” as well as the independent towns (ger., “kreisfreien Städte”) “Potsdam” and “Brandenburg an der Havel” (RP H-F 2016a). It is notable, that Havelland-Fläming is the most populous region in Brandenburg, but is characterized by a declining population in the rural areas, hence, the municipalities Dahme/Mark as well as Niederer Fläming are effected by the demographic change similarly (RP H-F 2016b). Unfulfilled growth expectations of the 1990s of the last century offered development and construction possibilities that exceed the expected need until 2020 and the demographic development allows expecting a number of inhabitants of just 760,000 till 2020. An ageing population along with the demographic change for this region is expected all the same. Moreover, an increasing change of the preferred living conditions away from the „living in blockhouses“ to the „living in one and two family houses“ is notable (RP H-F 2015).
  
-Currently, Dahme/Mark covers 162 km² and has a population about 5,253 inhabitants while Niederer Fläming comprises 185 km² with 3,186 inhabitants (Landkreis Teltow-Fläming 2016). In <imgref image2> the location of the municipalities Dahme/Mark and Niederer as well as the density of wind turbines in Brandenburg are shown. The size and structure of the settlements in the region show that these areas can be developed in towns in the future due to its empty sites and open spaces, therefore new designated areas for settlement are not considered as necessary outside of the settlements (RP H-F 2015).+Currently, Dahme/Mark covers 162 km² and has a population about 5,253 inhabitants while Niederer Fläming comprises 185 km² with 3,186 inhabitants (Landkreis Teltow-Fläming 2016). The size and structure of the settlements in the region show that these areas can be developed in towns in the future due to its empty sites and open spaces, therefore new designated areas for settlement are not considered as necessary outside of the settlements (RP H-F 2015). 
 + 
 +The <imgref image2> shows the location of the selected municipalities as well as the density of wind turbines in Brandenburg. The density map was based on data from the Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016), whereas the number of wind turbines installed and under construction in each municipality was divided by each municipality's area (km²). 
  
-<imgcaption image2|Map of density of wind turbines in Brandenburg and selected municipalities (figure: RCamargo)> {{ :research:density_choropleth_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:verortung_dm_und_nf.png |}}</imgcaption> + 
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]]+<imgcaption image2|Map of density of wind turbines in Brandenburg and selected municipalities. Data source: Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)> {{ :research:density_choropleth_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:verortung_dm_und_nf.png |}}</imgcaption> 
 +[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/builder/6e3ceeb5-035f-43dd-853b-45c50f83a161/embed|Click here for the interactive map]]
  
 //Landscape characteristics// //Landscape characteristics//
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 Concerning the wind energy development, in the region Havelland-Fläming there are currently 683 wind energy facilities with a capacity of 1,187 MW (RP H-F 2016c). In the municipality Dahme/Mark there are 50 wind facilities located and 10 are planned. In Niederer Fläming 57 wind facilities exist and three more are planned (RPHV 2016) (see <imgref image3>). Concerning the wind energy development, in the region Havelland-Fläming there are currently 683 wind energy facilities with a capacity of 1,187 MW (RP H-F 2016c). In the municipality Dahme/Mark there are 50 wind facilities located and 10 are planned. In Niederer Fläming 57 wind facilities exist and three more are planned (RPHV 2016) (see <imgref image3>).
  
-<imgcaption image3|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Niederer Fläming and Dahme/Mark (2016)> {{ :research:density_zoom2_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:rural_areas:fig._1_hf.png |}}</imgcaption> +<imgcaption image3|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Niederer Fläming and Dahme/Mark. Data source: Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)> {{ :research:density_zoom2_plan_copy.jpg |{{ :research:rural_areas:fig._1_hf.png |}}</imgcaption> 
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]]+[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/viz/85dc0ba4-33ed-4af8-bfcf-051e53f2364f/public_map|Click here for the interactive map]]
  
  
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 <imgcaption image4|Relevant designated areas for wind energy faculties („WEG“) in Niederer Fläming (left) and Dahme/Mark (right) (extract of the regional plan 2020) (RP-HF 2015)> {{ :research:rural_areas:fig._2_weg_dm_nf.png?610 |}}</imgcaption> <imgcaption image4|Relevant designated areas for wind energy faculties („WEG“) in Niederer Fläming (left) and Dahme/Mark (right) (extract of the regional plan 2020) (RP-HF 2015)> {{ :research:rural_areas:fig._2_weg_dm_nf.png?610 |}}</imgcaption>
- 
- 
-//Methodology of the set up to show the wind energy development in the figures// 
- 
-FIXME //Whilst Fig. 4 got a reference, Fig. 2, 3 and 5 have not been referenced. Thus, - **very important, explain good visible in the flow of text ** - how have been Fig. 2 and 3 exactly been set up? Which data have been used? Any limitations?// 
- 
-→ Rafael 
  
  
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 Today the municipality already has 32 installed wind turbines (see <imgref image5>) and further there is an ongoing approval process for another 14 wind turbines and another 3 are in a construction process. These wind turbines are mostly situated in the two wind parks of the municipality (BKG 2016). Today the municipality already has 32 installed wind turbines (see <imgref image5>) and further there is an ongoing approval process for another 14 wind turbines and another 3 are in a construction process. These wind turbines are mostly situated in the two wind parks of the municipality (BKG 2016).
      
-<imgcaption image5|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2016)>{{ :research:density_zoom3_plan_copy.jpg |}}</imgcaption> +<imgcaption image5|Wind energy facilities installed and under construction in Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. Data source: Landwirtschafts- und Umweltinformationssystem des Landes Brandenburg (LUIS-BB) concerning immission control (Landesamt für Umwelt Brandenburg, 2016)>{{ :research:density_zoom3_plan_copy.jpg |}}</imgcaption> 
-[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/maps|Click here for the interactive map]]+[[https://rafaexx.carto.com/viz/85dc0ba4-33ed-4af8-bfcf-051e53f2364f/public_map|Click here for the interactive map]]
  
 Despite the current increase of wind turbines, the long-time development of wind energy in the region is still uncertain, however, the climate protection concept of Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2013) provides several scenarios about the potential future development of wind energy (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013).  Despite the current increase of wind turbines, the long-time development of wind energy in the region is still uncertain, however, the climate protection concept of Uebigau-Wahrenbrück (2013) provides several scenarios about the potential future development of wind energy (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). 
 All these scenarios are based on the year 2010 data and estimate the technical and spatial development potentials for the renewable energy production in the year 2030. The predicted increase ranges from 'no significant increase’ up to nearly a doubling of the wind energy capacity.  The ‘ambitious scenario’ states that an increase up to 226 GWh would be possible (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). All these scenarios are based on the year 2010 data and estimate the technical and spatial development potentials for the renewable energy production in the year 2030. The predicted increase ranges from 'no significant increase’ up to nearly a doubling of the wind energy capacity.  The ‘ambitious scenario’ states that an increase up to 226 GWh would be possible (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013).
  
-Taking the increase of the wind energy in the last years and the possible future developments  into account it can be said that wind energy is a crucial topic within Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. It is worth noting that in the climate protection concept of the municipality it is stated that the future  development of wind energy in the region is not only depending on the spatial and technical possibilities, but also on public acceptance as this development has to be weighted against other public interests (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). This  dependency of wind energy development on social acceptance once more shows the relevance of the debate about social acceptance and further this research.  +Taking the increase of the wind energy in the last years and the possible future developments  into account it can be said that wind energy is a crucial topic within Uebigau-Wahrenbrück. It is worth noting that in the climate protection concept of the municipality it is stated that the future  development of wind energy in the region is not only depending on the spatial and technical possibilities, but also on public acceptance as this development has to be weighted against other public interests (Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück 2013). This  dependency of wind energy development on social acceptance once more shows the relevance of the debate about social acceptance and further this research.
-===== References ====+
  
 +The idea of selecting the municipality Uebigau-Wahrenbrück was an attempt of identifying relevant factors behind possible differences in social acceptance of wind energy between Havelland-Fläming and Lausitz-Spreewald. The comparison was thought meaningful once Uebigau-Wahrenbrück shows interesting characteristics related to energy production.
  
 +The municipality takes part in a development of a Regional Energy Concept. Lausitz-Spreewald is a centre of renewable energy production in particular from wind and solar source, however for two centuries brown coal production was a fundamental activity for the whole region.
  
-Amt Dahme/Mark2016, Bürgerbefragung Windenergie, Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from https://www.dahme.de/news/1/332081/nachrichten/bürgerbefragung-windenergie.html (Accessed on 06/15/2016). +Furthermorethe administration of the municipality Uebigau-Wahrenbrück is committed to different green initiatives (e.g. conversion of energy productionclimate management plan)The municipality participated in a climate protection projectwhich ended in 2013, supported by the Federal Ministry for the EnvironmentNature ConservationBuilding and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). Moreoverthe administration supports wind energy developmentfor instancenew wind farms have been planned within/or at the borders of the municipalityhoweverclose to settlements.  
- +===== References ====
-BaxmannM., 2004, Vom "Pfützenland" zum Energiebezirk : die Geschichte der Industrialisierung in der Lausitz. Verlag der Kunst, Dresden. +
- +
-Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2013)‘Das Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier‘Retrieved May 272016 from http://www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/themen/brandenburg/wirtschaft-und-tourismus/das-lausitzer-braunkohlerevier +
- +
-Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG), 2016, ‘Metaver’, Retrieved Mai 25, 2016 from http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadraons/http://www.metaver.de/kartendienste;jsessionid=68CD5DE9AE71793DC679F867BCA61D34?wms_url=http%3A%2F%2Fluaplims01.brandenburg.de%2FArcGIS%2Fservices%2FINSPIRE%2Fwka%2FMapServer%2FWMSServer%3FREQU-EST%3DGetCapabilities%26SERVICE%3DWMS&ID=http%3A%2F%2Fmetaver.de%2Figc_bb%2Flfu%2345C506E5-3E9D-4DE2-9073-C3DB636CE7CF +
- +
-CaporaleD., De Lucia, C., 2015, Social acceptance of on-shore wind energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy)Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52 (2015) 1378–1390  +
- +
-DEWI (UL International GmbH) (Eds.)2015. Aufstellungszahlen für das Jahr 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2016, from http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/statistics/Infoblatt_2015_Dezember.pdf +
- +
-Landkreis Teltow-Fläming, 2016, Niederer Fläming. Retrieved on 05/31/16 from http://www.teltow-flaeming.de/de/landkreis/staedte-und-gemeinden/niederer-flaeming.php  +
- +
-Larsen, S., Hansen, A., Lyhne, I., Aaen, S., Ritter, E.,  Nielsen, H., 2015, Social Impact Assessment in Europe: A Study of Social Impacts in Three Danish CasesJournal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management Vol. 17No4 (December 2015) 1550038 +
- +
-Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland Fläming (RPHV), 2016, Windenergieanalagen in der Region, Retrieved on 05.31.16 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  +
- +
- Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Lausitz-Spreewald, 2016, ‘Sachlicher Teilregionalplan „Windenergienutzung"‘, Retrieved May 25, 2016 from https://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?webmap=45ea9d8077d64f689f14dd4f243c4b23&extent=13.5118,51.6886,14.3708,51.9928  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming, 2016a, Verwaltungsgliederung, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 fromhttp: www.havelland-flaeming.de/verwaltungsgliederung.html  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016b, Bevölkerung. Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/bevoelkerung.html  +
- +
-RP H-F (Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2016c, Windenergieanlagen in der Region, Retrieved on 06.15.2016 from http://www.havelland-flaeming.de/windenergieanlagen-in-der-region.html  +
- +
-RP-HF (Regionalen Planungsgemeinschaft Havelland-Fläming), 2015, Regionalplan „Havelland-Fläming 2020“ +
- +
-Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2013, ‘Integriertes Klimaschutzkonzept für die Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück‘, Retrieved Mai 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/2014_01_10_iksk_uewa.pdf  +
- +
-Stadt Uebigau-Wahrenbrück, 2014, ’Gemeinsam leben in Uebigau-Wahnrebrück’, Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://daten2.verwaltungsportal.de/dateien/seitengenerator/79dba3bf06be747b48f89068512514be_33076_ib_uebigau_wahrenbrueck_zur_freigabe.pdf+
  
-Swofford, J., Slattery, M., 2010, Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making, Energy Policy 38 (2010) 2508–2519+  * Amt Dahme/Mark, 2016, Bürgerbefragung Windenergie, Retrieved on 06/15/2016 from https://www.dahme.de/news/1/332081/nachrichten/bürgerbefragung-windenergie.html (Accessed on 06/15/2016). 
 +  * Baxmann, M., 2004, Vom "Pfützenland" zum Energiebezirk : die Geschichte der Industrialisierung in der Lausitz. Verlag der Kunst, Dresden. 
 +  * Bidwell, D 2013, 'The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy', Energy Policy, vol. 58, pp. 189–199 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2013), ‘Das Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier‘, Retrieved May 27, 2016 from http://www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/themen/brandenburg/wirtschaft-und-tourismus/das-lausitzer-braunkohlerevier 
 +  * Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG), 2016, ‘Metaver’, Retrieved Mai 25, 2016 from http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadraons/http://www.metaver.de/kartendienste;jsessionid=68CD5DE9AE71793DC679F867BCA61D34?wms_url=http%3A%2F%2Fluaplims01.brandenburg.de%2FArcGIS%2Fservices%2FINSPIRE%2Fwka%2FMapServer%2FWMSServer%3FREQU-EST%3DGetCapabilities%26SERVICE%3DWMS&ID=http%3A%2F%2Fmetaver.de%2Figc_bb%2Flfu%2345C506E5-3E9D-4DE2-9073-C3DB636CE7CF 
 +  * Bush, D & Hoagland, P 2016b, 'Public opinion and the environmental, economic and aesthetic impacts of offshore wind', Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 120, pp. 70–79 [19 August 2016]. 
 +  * Caporale, D., De Lucia, C., 2015, Social acceptance of on-shore wind energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy), Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 52 (2015) 1378–1390  
 +  * Cowell, R 2010, 'Wind power, landscape and strategic, spatial planning—The construction of ‘acceptable locations’ in Wales', Land Use Policy, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 222–232 [31 August 2016]. 
 +  * DEWI (UL International GmbH) (Eds.), 2015. Aufstellungszahlen für das Jahr 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2016, from http://www.dewi.de/dewi_res/fileadmin/pdf/statistics/Infoblatt_2015_Dezember.pdf 
 +  * Enevoldsen, P & Sovacool, BK 2016, 'Examining the social acceptance of wind energy. Practical guidelines for onshore wind project development in France', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 53, pp. 178–184 [19 August 2016]. 
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research/rural_areas.1482059316.txt.gz · Last modified: 2016/12/18 12:08 by j.weber